“Marginalized in shanty towns … Dead or a live : Al Dowiqa opens fire again”

September 17th, 2008 by Editor

  

   On Saturday 6/9/2008 approximately  at 9:30 AM  , residents of Ezbet Bakhet , Al Dowiqa , Mansha’t Nasser in Cairo – which is considered one of shanty towns which includes a large population groups  localized up and down of the huge mountain plateau of Al Mokatam mountain – waked up on a loud voice of rocky masses collapse to crush many houses including hundreds of citizens  who failed to escape .

 

 

The civil defense and emergency couldn’t do their best due to the fact that this region includes an adjacent buildings separated by a narrow ways near a highway road , besides the ruggedness of the area near Al Mokatam mountain which prevents the big equipments to lift rocks or crumble it easily in some sites of the area .Also the crowd led to the postponement of saving victims under the rubble .  The government asked for the help of equipments , cranes and diggers belong  to the armed forces and Arab Contractors company  to lift rubble and rocky  masses .However , these equipments have not been used except only after several days because these equipments  need to erase about 13 houses and an old rail way line . In addition , a security cordon includes the military police troops surrounded the are and prevented journalists and media personnel to enter the area .         

 

 The crisis is not confined to Al Dowiqa crisis  as far as it goes far beyond it to  the crisis  of the shanty towns in general . The report deals with shanty towns case which has emerged as a reaction due to several  aspects including  economic, political, demographic and natural conditions  . This phenomenon  led to a vast consequences  and in some cases reached the  disastrous results such as the prevalence of terrorism , streets  children and violence .  

  

   The number of shanty towns  became  1221 areas according to the census of  2006 distributed in 24 governorates inhabited by 15.7 millions persons  and this rate represents 24 % of the total population of the republic .  The rate of shanty towns reach 77% of the constructional growth in some cities  as in Bani Mazar  – Al Menia  governorate and in some cases shanty towns reached about 87 % of the constructional extents like   in Giza governorate .  

 

  

  As for Assuit governorate , it stands at  the first position of the shanty towns followed by Cairo governorate which is supposed to be the cleaned city as it includes 81 shanty areas surrounded Cairo such as Arab Ghonim , Al Hakr , Arab Rashed , Kafr alow  , Al Tebeen ,Al Basateen ,Dar Al Salam known as ” people republic of china ” and Kalat Al Kabsh in the middle of Cairo as its population is about 40 000 persons surrounded by Zein Al Abdin cemetery ,Azbet Khairallah , Kafr Kandil in Giza , Ard Aziza Ezat , Azbet Al Korood in Masr Al Kadima , Azbet Abu Hashish ,Hakr Al Sharabia .As for Alexandria , it includes 54 shanty towns inhabited by about 35 % of the total population of Alexandria .

  

In this regard , EOHR issued a report entitled ” Marginalized in shanty towns   ….. Dead or a live : Al Dowiqa opens fire again ” . The report deals with the crisis of Al Dowiqa and shanty towns in general and the mechanisms that should be taken to solve this problem .

 
The report is divided as follows:
Section I: Legislative and legal framework of the right to housing
Section II: Shanty towns … The causes and results
Section III: Al Dowiqa  … live witnesses

 

Conclusion and recommendations   

 

 

Section I: Legislative and legal framework of the right to housing 

 

No one can deny that the  event of Al Dowiqa is considered a clear violation against the right to adequate housing which represents the simplest basic human rights .

 

 

The right to housing is one of the  basic human rights   and in the same time one of the fundamental bases  for human life and the main tool for realizing other human civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights .

 

In addition , the right to housing exceeds the normal building to include the relation between human and the society which humane lives in .This right has a different dimensions and relations which are difficult to be defined such as employment, access to services ,standards of health , personal security  , personal identity ,self- respect, privacy and family life .The suitable house builds the relations and links in an atmosphere of privacy, leading to respect the social relations among all individuals.  

  

The international covenants paid more attention to this right , especially  the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which stipulated in its article 25 that ” Everyone has the right to access  a standard of adequate living for  himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and Necessary social services and the right to personal security  in case of disasters  such as unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other circumstances that deprive him from main livelihood .Also the International Covenant on Economic , Social and Cultural Rights stipulated in its article 11 that ” Everyone has the right to adequate standard of living for himself and his family to provide their needs of food, clothing and shelter “.Also the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements in 1976 which is considered the  most detailed document related to the legal nature of this right stipulated in the second paragraph part three that ” Housing and the  appropriate services are the  fundamental human rights which  the government must provide for all people” and chapter 2 stipulated that ” Ideologies must not be used to deprive people from their houses or lands or to establish privileges and exploitation. The Istanbul Declaration -1996 confirmed the same meaning as it stipulated that ” Adequate shelter means more than one roof over the head of human, also it means  the appropriate privacy, adequate space, adequate security, legal protection of the population, rigidity and durability Structural, adequate lighting, heating, ventilation and appropriate infrastructure.   

 

 The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a report No. 4 related to the right to the suitable house as it identified the key elements which form the basic guarantees provided by the international law to enjoy the right to adequate housing  . These keys elements are :  

 

-The legal guarantee for the continuation of house occupancy .

– Providing services and materials , utilities and basic frameworks .

– The ability to bear the cost of living ( affordability) .

– Habitability

  Access to  the adequate housing according to the cultural background .

 

The Committee focused –according to the  general comment No. (7)- on the legal protection related to the forced eviction and other cases  which conflict with the  commitments  emerged according to the international Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

  

Also there are many other conventions that have paid attention including  the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women which Article 14, paragraph H confirmed that ” The right to enjoy with a suitable living conditions especially what related to  housing and drain utilities , electricity and water supply ,transport and communications and the convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in Article 41, paragraph 2, the Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 27, paragraph 3  and article 10 of  the Declaration of Social Progress and Development, and Article 8 (1) of the Declaration on the Right to Development And recommendation 115 of the International Labor Organization on housing for workers in 1961, the Convention on the Rights of Refugees in 1951.            

 This right didn’t take the correct position in the regional conventions for human rights , also there was no interest in the constitutions of Arab States as there are  17 Arab countries that didn’t mention this right in their constitutions, although there are more than fifty  national constitutions in the world  stated This right .Section II: Shanty towns  … The causes and results

 

  

The suitable house supported by basic services is considered a base of preserving the authentic character for the family and the maintenance for values and traditions which represent the basis for economic and social development .  The second section of the report  entitled ” Shanty towns ….. Causes and results” deals with  the exacerbation of the crisis in the last period in Egypt which was the problem that  the report of United Nations fund for Population bewared .      

  

 The report clarified that the inhabitants of Cairo swelled dramatically in the past three decades as the number duplicated from 6.4 millions in 1975 to 11.1 millions in 2005 , adding that the rate reached about 1221 shanty towns  including from 12 to 15 millions persons who live in unhealthy environment   where health hazards arise from poor drainage system and the lack of pure water  and the poor ventilation in work and living areas  besides , air pollution  and industrial pollution and inadequate food.  These shanty towns  are established by  tin  or zinc or wood  or cartoon  or distracted huts  with narrow alleys where  cars can’t move inside . These  shanty towns are established without a license in the territories owned by the government or others and usually these shanty towns are established outside the scope of governmental  services and utilities .

  

Shanty towns is considered a challenge to the social system in Egypt and a main snag for social and cultural development and a tool to bring out the crime and terrorism , also it contains some phenomenon  such as child labor, the spread of drugs, the lack of health and cultural  awareness and the lack of social organization . Also it is considered an incubation for all social diseases such as poverty , crimes ,illiteracy , unemployment and the inability to integrate into the city life and the lack of social cohesion or co-operation among these populations who are described as ” Marginalized urban ” .

 

Shanty towns populations are characterized by a group of negative features such as the abandonment of mates  for families , violence , family centralizing around the mother , they have a sense of “fatalism” ,the lack of  “self-esteem and frustration , fear , suspect and indifference from the economic ,social and political side as they are from low-wage employees used things and live in inadequate housing and crowded with the lack of development services.     

  

The reasons for the spread of this phenomenon are described as follows :

  

1- The main causes that led to the spread of this phenomenon  in the Egyptian region  ,  is the increase  number of population or as it were ” Over -Population “. The increase  number of population with the low resources leads to the decrease of  job opportunities and living level  ,so people resort  to these places to live in .

 

 

2- The migration from  the countryside to the town and the increase   of poverty rate inside the society  lead to the same problem . The Egyptian society has witnessed  a huge migration from country side to the town and the regional capitals to search for work .As far as  these masses were  a result to capitalize the country   , so far they  were considered a provisional army for work  to cover the needs for cheap labor in the emerged economic sectors .  

  

3- The increase rate of poverty inside the society :

 

The spread of poverty is a reflection for the lift of State hand over utilities and services and releasing the hand of private sector to control the market . Egypt comes within countries with  medium human development and its rank is 120 among 177 countries  covered by the Human Development guide   and  was preceded by  such countries like Israel whose rank is  22 and Bahrain in level 40 , Kuwait 44, Qatar 47 and the Emirates 49, while  Cuba ranked level No. 52 .

 

 

4- Unemployment :

  

The rates of unemployment are  raised unprecedented   as the unemployment is one of  the main cause of this phenomenon as it reached about 9.1 % of the total of labor force in Egypt ( 17.8 millions idle persons ) according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics . The causes of the problem of unemployment for the most part of it return back to a structural reasons due to the nature of the Egyptian economic growth -as a developing economy- which suffers from an interior or exterior  structural imbalance  represented in a defect in the balance of payments and imbalance in the state budget , beside the existed gab between savings and investment and thus the production and consumption . The report of human development for Egypt in 2005 issued in Jan 2006 indicated that the chronic unemployment rate is one of the most serious problems facing the Egyptian economy   as the official figure became 11% in 2003 . 

 

 5- The negligence of governmental bodies for members of society as for providing a safe place for living .

  

6- The inability of government to set housing  policies         

 

This phenomenon led to a group of results as follows :

 

The prevalence of violence :

  

shanty towns is considered the main fuel for generating violence inside the society .It creates the key elements for the complete readiness of violence. There is another key element for violence represented in retaliatory nature , the social violence reflects a sense of injustice and oppression .It was a sense of marginalized towards the city which give him the life  and neglect him in the same time , so he is controlled by the desire for revenge the matter which makes many thuggery practices   similar to the collective punishment regardless of its causes and results . Shanty towns is considered the incubated environment for political violence as the shanty towns with the economic and social circumstances  helps to spread the violent political behavior  in the presence of economic and political deprivation and negativism and the absence of security for the state the matter which led to the existence of the elementary conditions of ideologies of violence . The social origins of “Jihad organization members”  showed the responsibility of these origins as an incubated environment for political violence  .During the first half of nineties , there were 14 % of these groups which affiliate to Al Sahel district  , 9.1 % for Al Sharabia district  , 9.1 % for Al Waili , 7.3 % for Al Mataria , 31 % Imbaba , 24.2 % Bolaque , however the family roots of most of them return to Al Aiat , Nahia ,Saft Al Laban , Kirdasa , Ezbet Shokr , Ezbet dolar , Al Khanka , Abu Zabel , Kafr shokr , . These villages are mainly suffer from economic changes  and problems of transition to urban style . The situation repeated itself in the second half of the nineties  as the religious violence processes concentrated in upper Egypt villages specially in Malawi , Dirout ,Samalout and Abu Korkas .

 

 In this regard , the relation between the shanty towns  and violence on the social and political levels is clear  . This relation is expected to aggravate in the light of the following :

  

First ,  The rapid withdrawal for the state from the economic and social fields , in the frame work of  the structural transformations of the Egyptian state – the program of economic reform and structural adjustment – and the consequent denial of the economic base of the State – the privatization of public enterprise sector –the reduction of social expenditure – the commodity support, public expenditure on education, health and others – the crisis will aggravate due to the decline of employment opportunity and increasing burdens  of living the matter which leads to the crash between the margin and center,  city and shanty towns .  

    

Second: changes in social structure of the shanty towns , unlike the historic beginnings of shanty towns  , these areas are no longer the  camps which collect immigrants from rural areas ( idles , poor people , young professionals ) ,in the framework of capitalizing the production relation in the Egyptian countryside .Starting from the mid of seventies and as a result of a growing urban  and real estate speculations  , these areas began to witness a new pattern of displacement . A growing proportions of urban populations settled in the shanty towns  the matter which creates a heterogeneous social and intellectual mix that share in incorporating the conflict between the values of rural area and the city , besides the role of establishing the basic conditions for religious violence .

  

Third :The state trend to control the urban growth  , this includes the re-planning of urban centers ,especially the capital and the big cities which leads to remove and resettle a huge number of shanty towns residents the matter which leads to further clashes between the two sides  .     

 

 

Second: The spread of children employment :

   

 

The international society interested in combating the phenomenon of children employment as it is considered one of the most greatest phenomenon in communities history , it attacks the base of the society , besides the moral objections concerning the  exploitation of  children in the labor market . The international Convention on the rights of the child issued by the united nations in 1989 paid more attention to the protection of children from violation through letting them in the labor market . Article 22 of the convention stipulated that “The involved countries admit the rights of children to protect them from the economic exploitation or from any action that supposed to be danger or represent a snag or interfere with the children education or their mental , physical , spiritual growth .

 

 

 

 The phenomenon became  clear in Egypt as the number of homeless children is about 2 millions ,including  90 000 in Cairo , the statistics indicated to the magnitude of misdemeanors related to streets children , as most misdemeanors represented by  theft by 56 % , expose to homeless with 16.5 % , beggary  13.9 % , violence with 5.2 % , delinquency with 2.9 % .

  


Third: The environment field   

  
 The environmental degradation is represented in a solid waste and the random removal of garbage , besides the existence of accumulated wastes near the residential area , open burning or self-ignition of accumulations , the spread of population groups around dumps to take advantage of garbage through isolating and unsecured exploration by children .

 


Fourth : The  drainage system          

  
Most shanty towns lacks the integrated service for the drainage system , as the removal of drainage is through the usage of exposed ground tanks or by deep drain in ground water tanks which leads to the creation of moors in the shanty towns , besides other negative environmental effects on the drinkable water .

 

 

Fifth: the  drinkable  water

 
most of shanty towns lacks the service of drinkable water as the inhabitants get their needs through pulling ground water by unhealthy pumps which leads to the appearance of diarrhea cases or any other health problems .

 

 

sixth :The industrial activities :

  

There are industrial activities spread in some cities especially the shanty towns such as foundries – brick factories – crafts workshops – poultry and animal farms . The random removal of the liquid and rigid industrial wastes in the surrounding grounds and water courses  leads  to a bad effect on the quality of soil and water , besides the high rate of noise .    

 

  

Section III: Al Dowiqa …… live witnesses  

  

EOHR sent a two fact- finding missions to that area , the first one was sent the day after the event as it faced many snags to get in the location of the event due to the siege laid by the security forces around the whole area . The fact finding mission noticed that there is no equipments to lift the collapsed rocks and debris and residents used a primitive equipments to get out victims . So EOHR sent another fact –finding mission in the fifth day , it monitored the following violations as follows :

 

 

1- There were a few number of first – aid men assisted by the people of the area using rudimentary equipments such as drove and hummer .

2- The existence of two dead manual diggers .

3- The absence of the trained dogs that detect the victims .

4- The non – participation of armed forces in the exploration of victims .

5- The existence of two bulldozers belong to the Arab Contractors Company as they eliminate the surrounding buildings to widening the area .

6- The emission of bad smell from the corpses as a result of its putridity .

 

7- Two members of the ministry of Health sprinkled a purified material in the area .

  

8- The existence of a large security forces in the area to prevent residents and journalists from entering the are except only journalists from the national newspapers .      

   

The fact finding mission came to the following results :

 

 

1- The absence of the monitored role .Although there were a similar collapses in the same area in the past few years , the monitored state agencies didn’t move to help especially that the geographical nature of that area is  rocky , also buildings are randomly located on the side of the mountain surfaces , besides the existing houses down to the mountain which suffer from the random drainage system , the matter which required to evacuate all residents from the area . The continuation of these buildings as they are led to the leak of the drainage system to the loam soil and so the pressure on the limestone rocks .    

 

 

The National Institute for Astrophysics and Geophysics Research has prepared a report in collaboration with the Geological survey concerning the study of the nature of Al Mokatam area . This study recommended the necessary of houses evacuation from the side surfaces or down of the mountain all as the same  .These results were submitted to officials in Cairo governorate in 1994 , however the efforts of the governorate are longed in vain , because residents were forced to leave the houses in the morning but they returned back in the night .

 

 

2- The lack of attention to the victims under the rocky blocks , besides the strong slowness to get out corpses  .

 

3- The lack of awareness of civil defense forces with their tasks , also they didn’t receive an adequate training to deal with the crisis .

 

4- The lack of the  constructional planning that allow   to evacuate the shanty towns in the places where life of residents faces risks and to compensate victims with alternative houses .

5- The failure of the competent agencies to deal with crises .

 

 

The live witnesses

 

  

Yassin Taha -41 years old – sheep trader .

  

“We stood with the rescue team till 3 AM , and there were several individuals from residents whose houses are under rocks . These individuals were receiving calls from their relatives who are under wreckage via mobile phones . The victims tried to call for the help to be heard” .

 

  

2- Mostafa Tawfik 23 years old :

  

“The rescue teams are still using the manual equipments  to get out victims . Frankly , residents began to fight the rescue team who tried to prevent them to help “

 

 

3- Mohamed Rashid 29 years old – worker

  

” I was sleeping in my house , then I surprised by a loud sound and a shake like earthquake . I found all people in the street and said that the mountain is falling down . I went there to find that a large piece of the mountain fell on the houses and shanties” .

 

 

4- Zeinab Mostafa  

 

“At 9 :00 AM,  I found my house shaking and we heard a sound of collapse and began to escape from houses despite my house is far from the stricken area” .  

 

5- Mohamed Sobhy -24 years old

  

“4 months ago a collapse was occurred in the same area without losses and nothing done by the governorate officials  or the district council . Also in 2005 there was another collapse which led to the death of a family altogether besides the individual accidents .

 

 

6- Wael Abdul Magid  24 years old  

 

 ” The main reason for the collapse is the existence of drainage tubes above the mountain whose nature is consisting of lime layers . These layers are being crumbled by the drain water accordingly “.

  

7- Mohamed Magdy – 21 years one of residents who participated in the rescue process

  

” I was in the location of the event since 11 Am at the beginning of the collapse . I took out many numbers of corpses under the rocks , on 9/9/2008 one corpse called ” Abu Khaled was extracted while on 10/9/2008 4 corpses were extracted . The rescue team is using a manual tools to extract the corpses , also the soldiers of civil defense  are standing hand tied and their work is very slow  and we are using a hummer and chisel to get out corpses” .      

  

8- Mohamed Salah 24- years

 

” Since  the first day of the collapse , we didn’t see one trained dog that helps to recognize corpses . We asked the rescue team to take the manual digger machine but they refused “. 

 

9- Hasan Khair – 28 years  , one of lost victims families under wreckage .

  

“I have a family  relation with Al Gargish family who is under rocks till now due to the slowness process of extracting corpses .

 

 

10- Mohamed Anter – worker

  

“At 9:00 AM  we had heard the sound of collapse and a strong shake in the mountain  . Immediately we had informed the emergency , the first emergency car came at 10:00 Am and the first rescue team was the armed forces from the neighbor battalion and in the afternoon emergency cars , civil defense troops came to the location of the crisis “.

 

 

 

Conclusion and recommendations

  

   At the end of the report , EOHR confirms the magnitude of the humanitarian catastrophe  which many aspects helped to increase it even if  it is practical or legislative  .  However , it was possible to extenuate the impacts of the crises if the government has a limited and clear mechanism to confront  the crisis regardless of its nature .  It is clear for all that there is a severe  failure committed by the competent bodies   when dealing with the crisis  . Furthermore, EOHR recommends the following :

 

 

First : The need for taking a quick steps to manage the crisis of Al Dowiqa 

 

The mechanisms of solving this crisis lack to the required quickness  to save lives under the ruins , and the way to deal with the crisis  ,   besides the lack of a watchful  leadership to manage the crisis .

 

 

So EOHR recommends the following :   

         Forming a high committee to search  the reasons  of the crisis  and its impacts  and ways to avoid  it through addressing the competent ministries to establish a private unit to mange crises .

         Forming a qualified team to survey  areas which  represent danger for residents  and to vacate these areas and to give houses for residents in a safe places .

         Issuing a law to establish an independent council  to manage  crises  , this council includes a group of consultants in all majors related to the humanitarian or natural catastrophes  and to specify an independent budget for it . This council may not submit to any ministry  .

 

Second : As for shanty towns :

 

The problem is not in Al Dowiqa in particular , but  in all shanty towns  as the same .  We have about 1221 shanty towns on the republic level . There is a need to deal with shanty towns   in a serious way to avoid its reiteration  as Al Dowiqa is not the first case . So EOHR recommends the following :

 

         Setting an alternative and effective solutions in order to get rid of shanty  towns which considered a violation against the  right to generous  live which includes ( food , clothes , house , education , treatment , and other main needs ) .

         Providing and promoting the housing level and make it available for all citizens  especially for low income categories with a reasonable prices  with a new strategy to challenge the housing crisis in Egypt .

         Taking a quick steps  to develop an integrated urban strategy  which  puts all state’s efforts in establishing new cities , desert villages and shanty towns development in the framework of  public plan .

         Confirming the nationality of  population problem  , and the necessary of  considering it one of the main problems and its responsibility is  not  confined to a specific ministry  or sector , however the responsibility  falls  upon all ministries and agencies , governmental and non governmental organizations  and institutions concerned with the private sector .

         Establishing  a committee that works on evaluating the role of new urban communities and cities in solving the problem of population to recognize their failure to achieve their goals  , also to recognize   the methods of encouraging inhabitants to the new cities in order to set an effective  strategy  which leads to limit the high population percentage in the old valley .

         Confirming the necessary of spending for population problem as a main part of Stat’s investments  which society shall provide .

         The need  for permanent modernization for population policy  and strategies .

         Revising  laws and legislations which conflict with targets and philosophy of population policies .

          The need for activating laws and legislations that limit building on the agricultural lands .

         Completing the constructional designs preparations to avoid the establishment of new shanty towns and asking for the help of faculty of engineering  and constructional  planning faculty and consultative  offices  due to the lack of local agencies that responsible for these designs .

         The need for activating the real state finance law and implementing what stipulated in article 35 related to the establishment of the support fund for real state finance in the field of selling houses for low income people and to provide the necessary funds for supporting social housing .

         Setting a strategy for low income housing  in the light of market economy   based on encouraging   emigration to the new places with the need to strengthen services in these areas .

         The state  has to guarantee   a high percentage of  funding for  providing the appropriate housing for citizens who have no  adequate or appropriate shelter   .

         The state has to take the necessary measures in order to develop a plan for community development on the economic and local level and structural change to ensure the access of citizens to adequate housing .

 

 

 

viagra
free viagra
buy viagra online
generic viagra
how does viagra work
cheap viagra
buy viagra
buy viagra online inurl
viagra 6 free samples
viagra online
viagra for women
viagra side effects
female viagra
natural viagra
online viagra
cheapest viagra prices
herbal viagra
alternative to viagra
buy generic viagra
purchase viagra online
free viagra without prescription
viagra attorneys
free viagra samples before buying
buy generic viagra cheap
viagra uk
generic viagra online
try viagra for free
generic viagra from india
fda approves viagra
free viagra sample
what is better viagra or levitra
discount generic viagra online
viagra cialis levitra
viagra dosage
viagra cheap
viagra on line
best price for viagra
free sample pack of viagra
viagra generic
viagra without prescription
discount viagra
gay viagra
mail order viagra
viagra inurl
generic viagra online paypal
generic viagra overnight
generic viagra online pharmacy
generic viagra uk
buy cheap viagra online uk
suppliers of viagra
how long does viagra last
viagra sex
generic viagra soft tabs
generic viagra 100mg
buy viagra onli
generic viagra online without prescription
viagra energy drink
cheapest uk supplier viagra
viagra cialis
generic viagra safe
viagra professional
viagra sales
viagra free trial pack
viagra lawyers
over the counter viagra
best price for generic viagra
viagra jokes
buying viagra
viagra samples
viagra sample
cialis
generic cialis
cheapest cialis
buy cialis online
buying generic cialis
cialis for order
what are the side effects of cialis
buy generic cialis
what is the generic name for cialis
cheap cialis
cialis online
buy cialis
cialis side effects
how long does cialis last
cialis forum
cialis lawyer ohio
cialis attorneys
cialis attorney columbus
cialis injury lawyer ohio
cialis injury attorney ohio
cialis injury lawyer columbus
prices cialis
cialis lawyers
viagra cialis levitra
cialis lawyer columbus
online generic cialis
daily cialis
cialis injury attorney columbus
cialis attorney ohio
cialis cost
cialis professional
cialis super active
how does cialis work
what does cialis look like
cialis drug
viagra cialis
cialis to buy new zealand
cialis without prescription
free cialis
cialis soft tabs
discount cialis
cialis generic
generic cialis from india
cheap cialis sale online
cialis daily
cialis reviews
cialis generico
how can i take cialis
cheap cialis si
cialis vs viagra
levitra
generic levitra
levitra attorneys
what is better viagra or levitra
viagra cialis levitra
levitra side effects
buy levitra
levitra online
levitra dangers
how does levitra work
levitra lawyers
what is the difference between levitra and viagra
levitra versus viagra
which works better viagra or levitra
buy levitra and overnight shipping
levitra vs viagra
canidan pharmacies levitra
how long does levitra last
viagra cialis levitra
levitra acheter
comprare levitra
levitra ohne rezept
levitra 20mg
levitra senza ricetta
cheapest generic levitra
levitra compra
cheap levitra
levitra overnight
levitra generika
levitra kaufen

This entry was posted on Wednesday, September 17th, 2008 at 2:49 pm and is filed under Reports. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.