Introduction

March 4th, 2020 by Editor

Introduction

The Human Rights Council was established by the United Nations General Assembly on the 15th of March 2006 by resolution 60/251 to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, as a subsidiary body of the General Assembly.

The resolution stipulated that the Human Rights Council is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system responsible for supporting the promotion and protection of all human rights throughout the world and for handling cases of human rights violations and making recommendations thereon. The Council has the ability to discuss all issues and thematic situations of human rights that require its attention throughout the year.

Its first session was held from 19 to 30 June 2006. A year later, the Council adopted its Institutional Building Package to guide its work and establish its procedures and mechanisms.[1]

Among these procedures and mechanisms is the universal periodic review mechanism that is used to assess the human rights situation in all UN member states[2] and it is a unique process that involves conducting a review of the human rights records of all UN member states. The universal periodic review is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides all States with the opportunity to declare and reveal the actions they have taken to improve human rights conditions in their countries and to fulfil their human rights obligations. The UPR, as one of the main benchmarks of the Human Rights Council, is designed to ensure that every country is treated on an equal basis when assessing the human rights situation in it.

The ultimate goal of this mechanism is to improve the human rights situation in all countries and to address human rights violations wherever they occur.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon described the UPR mechanism as “of great potential to promote and protect human rights in the most unjust parts of the world.”[3]

It is worth noting that the Egyptian State was underwent this mechanism three times in its history. The first time was in 2010, the Egyptian government received 165 recommendations, of which 140 were accepted. The second time was in 2014, the Egyptian government received 300 recommendations, of which 224 were accepted. The third and final one was in November 2019, the Egyptian government received 372 recommendations, and the Egyptian government is expected to announce which recommendations it is willing to adopt at the 43rd session of the Human Right Council.

First: A summary of the UPR session in November 2019

This UPR session is the third instance where the Egyptian file was subjected to this mechanism, and during this session, the Egyptian government received 372 recommendations, and this is the largest number of its recommendations received by the Egyptian state since it was first subjected to this mechanism in 2010. Here we will present a summary of the recommendations, before they are provided in detail at the end of the report.[4]

We have classified these recommendations into 19 topics, drawn from the five main rights – civil, political, economic, social and cultural. At the forefront of these rights in terms of the number of recommendations was the right to freedom of association and the role of civil society organizations and cooperation with international mechanisms and to promote the human rights situation with 76 recommendations, all of them aimed at increasing cooperation with international mechanisms and human rights organizations, creating a safe environment for workers for these organizations, and promoting human rights culture. In second place came the rights of women, children and persons with disabilities with 67 recommendations; all of these recommendations aim to empower women, combat discrimination against them, amend laws relating to women’s rights and taking more measures to protect women. In third place came Economic and Social Rights with 62 recommendations all aiming to combat unemployment, creating jobs, eradicating illiteracy and providing adequate housing. These themes combined constitute 205 recommendations which makes them 55% of the total number of recommendations.

In fourth place came recommendations in capital punishment which are around 27. All of them seek to abolish the death penalty, decreasing crimes punishable by death and commuting death sentences. In fifth place came the right to freedom of expression with 22 recommendations, all seeking to open up the public space for different opinions, and amending laws that restrict freedom of expression.

In Sixth place came international treaties and conventions with 20 recommendations all urging Egypt to sign and ratify a number of treaties. In Seventh place came combating torture, the right to a just trial, with 15 recommendations. In Ninth place came the rights to access to health care and education with 14 recommendations and combating corruption came in tenth place with 10 recommendations. 

Freedom of Religion and combating terrorism and human trafficking came in eleventh place with 9 recommendations. Refugee Rights came in twelfth place with 8 recommendations. And at the bottom were combating discrimination with 4 recommendations, and LGBT rights with 3 recommendations and the rights of prisoners with 2 recommendations.

Second: The measures required to be taken.[5]

States make recommendations to the State subjected to this mechanism in order to improve the human rights situation. These recommendations are either a reflection of the human rights situation in the given State, or of data presented by organizations working in the field of human rights, or by the absence of information about the human rights situation in the given State.

The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights out of its eagerness to improve the human rights situation, and to truthfully present the human rights situation in Egypt, some proposals were submitted to the Egyptian authorities regarding the implementation of the UPR recommendations, which EOHR believes will lead to improving the human rights situation in Egypt. These proposals are divided into four main parts, the first part: signing and ratifying treaties and conventions, the second part: amending some legislations, the third part: taking some executive measures, the fourth part: developing an integrated human rights strategy implemented in cooperation with human rights NGOs and the National Council for Human Rights.

1) Accession to International Treaties

  1. Accession to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
  2. Accession to the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness
  3. Ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture
  4. Ratification of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
  5. Ratification of the second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  6. Ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
  7. Withdrawing all reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
  8.  Ratification the protocol on the rights of women in Africa of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

2) Legislative amendments

  1. Amend Article 126 of the Penal Code in accordance with the definition provided in Article 1 (1) of the Convention against Torture
  2. Amending the Prison Law to allow the National Council for Human Rights to visit prisons by notification and to expand the scope of conditional release to include all prisoners without regard to the sentences they are serving.
  3. Adding the term enforced disappearance to articles 280, 281 and 282 of the Penal Code, as well as incriminating unlawful detention of citizens without not notifying them of the charges against them, and not enabling them to contact their lawyers.
  4. Repeal the amendments made to Article 5 of the Military Provisions Law, and limit the jurisdiction of military courts to provisions provided by article 204 of the Egyptian constitution.
  5.  Issuing laws to protect and ensure all the basic rights stipulated by international covenants and the Egyptian constitution, as well as working to harmonize existing laws with the Egyptian constitution.
  6. Issue a law that activates the constitutional provision that allows the National Council for Human Rights to file a civil claim in torture cases.
  7.  Amending the law on pre-trial detention and stipulating a specific period, which the authority of investigation or the court may not bypass in any way during the investigation or the hearing of the case, and expanding the use of alternatives to pre-trial detention.
  8. Set a maximum limit for alternatives to pre-trial detention methods, such as travel bans, and regulate them according to the law, with the application of methods to challenge it, as stipulated in law governing pre-trial detention.
  9.  Amend the penal code to allow the full exercise of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and abolish freedom-depriving penalties in publishing crimes.
  10. Amend the current Personal Status Law, to guarantee equal rights to women.
  11. The issuance of the draft law on confronting violence against women, which was approved by Parliament but has not been issued yet.
  12. The promulgation of a law criminalizing discrimination.
  13. Issue a law criminalizing dropping out of education.
  14. Amending the terrorism law No. 94 of 2015.
  15.  Rephrase the wording of loose provisions in the anti-terrorism law.
  16.  Adopt a definition of terrorism in line with the one adopted by the UN Security Council.
  17. Amending Article 98 of the Penal Code.

3) Executive Measures

  1. Aligning national legislations with international efforts to combat corruption.
  2. Setting some standards for places of detention in a manner that preserves the dignity of citizens, and establishing human rights clubs inside prisons to receive complaints from prisoners and detainees.
  3. Establishing a communication mechanism between the Public Prosecution and those detained in prisons to submit any comments or complaints directly.
  4. Publication of all court rulings issued in cases of torture.
  5. Establishing a national anti-torture mechanism attached to the National Council for Human Rights, after signing the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture.
  6. Activating alternatives to preventive detention and not resorting to it except for serious crimes.
  7. Publication of various reports of the general fact-finding commissions.
  8. Publish all findings of investigations into human rights violations, and make all court rulings of these cases publicly available.
  9. Reforming prisons and places of detention to comply with the minimum standards for the treatment of prisoners and detainees in accordance with international standards.
  10. Intensify human rights awareness through the media.
  11. Giving more attention to development initiatives in marginalized communities and poor areas.
  12. Renewing religious discourse by professionals in a systematic way through all means of publication.
  13. Establish a mechanism to combat discrimination against women.
  14. Establish a mechanism to increase women’s representation in public service.
  15. Enable women to join contests for appointment at the judiciary.
  16. Establish a specific mechanism for adequate youth representation in all sectors.
  17. Create a plan to reduce unemployment.
  18.  Increase the number of literacy classes all over the Republic, especially in Upper Egypt.
  19.  Carry out more awareness campaigns on the importance of education.

4) A comprehensive human rights strategy implemented in cooperation with human rights NGOs.

An integrated human rights strategy should be developed by the Egyptian state, and be implemented in cooperation with civil society organizations and the National Council for Human Rights. Its goals should be:

  1. Participation of civil society organizations in developing and implementing this strategy
  2. Implement the recommendations accepted by the Egyptian government at the 43rd session of the Human Rights Council.
  3. Develop an annual plan of action to improve the human rights situation, in which it identifies some issues that need to be improved,.
  4. Develop a clear plan and policy to train law enforcement officials on human rights values and principles.
  5. Use experts from organizations working in the field of human rights to train public employees to respect human rights values and principles.
  6. Strengthening the role of civil society in contributing to awareness campaigns and spreading a culture of human rights.
  7. Cooperate with civil society in raising awareness and dealing with victims of the crime of torture.
  8. Closing Case No. 173, and lifting travel bans on activists.
  9. Guarantee the protection of human rights defenders.
  10. Conduct awareness-raising campaigns on the importance of respecting human rights principles and values.
  11. Strengthening the independence of the National Council for Human Rights.
  12.  Expanding the powers of the National Council for Human Rights.
  13. Allow the National Council for Human Rights to visit prisons with a notification only.
  14. Activating the role of the Supreme National Committee for Human Rights in undertaking the following tasks:
    1. Coordination with various agencies to submit late and overdue reports.
    1. Full cooperation with the UN Human Rights Council.
    1. Submit late reports to relevant treaty bodies.
    1. Consider accepting visit requests submitted to the Egyptian government by special rapporteurs.

In the end, it should be noted that the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights urged the Egyptian government to take these measures in many of its statements and press releases.

Third: The recommendations

Number of Recommendations Subject
20 Treaties and Conventions
22 Cooperation with International Mechanisms
30 Reinforcing Human Rights
3 LGBT Rights
4 Combating discrimination
15 Combating torture and ill-treatment
2 Prisoners’ Rights
27 Capital Punishment
22 Freedom of Expression
9 Freedom of Religion
24 Freedom of Civil Society
9 Combating Terrorism
15 Right to fair trial
10 Combating Corruption
9 Human Trafficking
62 Economic and Social Rights
14 Rights to Education and Health
67 The rights of women, children and people with disabilities
8 Refugee Rights
372 Total

First: International agreements

Egypt has received 20 recommendations out of 372, with regard to the need to join or withdraw its reservation to some international treaties and agreements, as they urged Egypt to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, ratify the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and join the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced disappearance. They also demanded Egypt’s accession to the second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming to abolish the death penalty and to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Recommendations also urged Egypt to join the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. Recommendations also urged Egypt to consider signing and ratifying the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, join the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples ‘Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, consider ratifying the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Africa, and withdraw reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of discrimination against women.

Second: Cooperation with international mechanisms

Egypt received 22 recommendations out of 372, urging it to cooperate with international mechanisms, where they called for the necessity of issuing a permanent invitation to all special rapporteurs to visit Egypt, to continue to cooperate with the Human Rights Council and to enhance technical cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, and to announce measures taken to implement the recommendations submitted by the committee Against torture, following her secret investigation in 2016. Egypt was also urged to present the lessons learned from last year in its capacity as President of the African Union regarding cooperation with international and regional human rights mechanisms, and joining the Code of Conduct relating to Security Council actions against genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, as formulated by the Accountability, Coherence and Transparency group.

Third: Promoting Human Rights

Egypt received 30 recommendations out of 372, regarding the need to cooperate with national mechanisms and facilitate their tasks, calling for the necessity of providing resources for the National Council for Human Rights and the Permanent Supreme Committee for Human Rights to enable them to carry out their mandates effectively, and to consider the possibility of developing a national strategy for human rights, Continuing the process of revising the existing laws to ensure compliance with the 2014 constitution and strengthening the independence of the National Council for Human Rights by allocating an adequate budget to it. Egypt was also urged to implement the necessary standards to enhance the enjoyment by young people of human rights, to continue organizing the World Youth Forum, to increase human rights education and training programs, and to expand their scope to include a greater number of public servants and law enforcement officials, and educate them in the field of human rights.

Fourth: LGBT Rights

Egypt received 3 recommendations out of 372, regarding the rights of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, and these recommendations focused on the necessity of stopping the arrests made against them because of their sexual orientation, and called for abolishing laws that criminalize homosexual relations.

Fifth: Combating all forms of discrimination

Egypt has received 4 recommendations out of 372 in relation to combating forms of discrimination. These recommendations called for strengthening efforts aimed at eliminating discrimination and enhancing access of vulnerable groups to education. The recommendations also urged Egypt to include a definition of racial discrimination in national legislation, and to intensify efforts to combat all forms of discrimination, including discrimination against women and religion-based discrimination, by continuing to sensitize the population and religious leaders.

Sixth: Combating torture and ill-treatment

Egypt received 15 recommendations out of 372, in relation to combating torture and ill-treatment. These recommendations demanded the harmonization of the definition of torture in the Egyptian Penal Code with international law. Recommendations also urged Egypt to establish an independent investigation mechanism, and conduct effective investigations into all allegations of torture and ill-treatment, especially in places of detention, and strengthen efforts to prevent and combat all these practices, and ensure the protection of all citizens. More over the recommendations stated that Egypt should provide necessary training for the police and armed forces, consider ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, implement the recommendations issued by the Committee against Torture to ensure access to medical assistance and family visits in prisons, and reform laws to ensure effective civilian oversight of the military and police authorities, With a particular focus on protecting against authorized disappearances, military trials of civilians, and interference with judicial procedures.

Seventh: Prisoners’ Rights

Egypt received two of 372 recommendations regarding prisoners’ rights, and these recommendations focused on prisoners’ rights to regular family visits, medical treatment and access to lawyers; and this includes inmates in maximum security prisons. The recommendations also urged Egypt to ensure that minimum standards of humane treatment of prisoners are available, including Protection from all forms of torture.

Eighth: the death penalty

Egypt received 27 recommendations out of 372 regarding the death penalty, and at their forefront was a recommendation regarding the abolition of the death penalty, and the ratification of the second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights aimed at abolishing the death penalty. The rest of the recommendations regarding capital punishment varied from a gradual reduction in the list of crimes punishable by death, to placing a moratorium on the death penalty with the aim of eventually abolishing it, to refraining from the application of the death penalty to minors at the time the crimes were committed, and reviewing all death sentences.

Ninth: Freedom of opinion and expression

Egypt received 22 recommendations out of 372 regarding freedom of opinion and expression, and these recommendations demanded the release of all detainees arrested on account of their exercise of their right to freedom of opinion and expression, and to ensure that freedom of expression in all its forms is guaranteed, including artistic expression. The recommendations also urged Egypt to put an end to censorship imposed on news and human rights websites, respect the right to information, and to stop attacks on freedom of opinion and expression, especially the arrest of journalists. Egypt was also advised to amend the law on cybercrime, to ensure its compliance with its international obligations, develop specific legislation related to freedom of information and access to it, and ensure that all legislations guarantee freedom of opinion and expression as well as freedom of assembly and association,  in accordance with the principles enshrined in Egypt’s 2014 constitution and the harmonization of its legislation with Egypt’s international obligations in The field of human rights.

Tenth: Freedom of Religion

Egypt received 9 recommendations out of 372, regarding freedom of religion, calling for continued efforts to ensure respect for freedom of religion, in law and in practice, in full accordance with international standards. The recommendations also urged Egypt to remove undue restrictions on building and restoring churches, remove the reference to religion in identity cards, in order to enhance religious freedom, ensure that local and regional authorities take appropriate measures to protect Christians from extremists, especially in rural areas, and to further promote a culture of tolerance by intensifying participation in interfaith activities, including cooperation with other countries in supporting initiatives aimed at promoting respect for cultural diversity and religious tolerance.

Eleventh: Freedom of Association and Civil Society

Egypt received 24 out of 372, in relation to the right to freedom of association and the role of civil society organizations, calling for full implementation, in consultation with civil society and international partners, of the 2019 NGO law. They also called upon the government to ensure that human rights defenders are able to operate in a free and safe environment and to repeal or amend all laws and policies that limit the activities of civil society and human rights defenders such as Law No. 70/2017, Anti-Terrorism Law No. 94, Article 78 of the Criminal Law, Law Against Cyber ​​Crime and Information Technology Crimes and the Media Regulation Law. The recommendations urged Egypt to review all legislation that regulates freedom of expression, association and assembly, and amend them in line with international human rights law. The recommendations also stressed the importance of Egypt’ commitment to support a free and active civil society by suspending case No. 173, and cancelling travel bans and asset freezes against civil society activists, and by continuing to strengthen its efforts to prevent all acts of intimidation or reprisals targeting those cooperating with the United Nations and its representatives and mechanisms in the field of human rights, and improve the access of observers to the electoral process. Some recommendations called for the adoption of a law to protect human rights defenders.

Twelfth: Combating Terrorism

Egypt received 9 recommendations out of 372 related to combating terrorism. These recommendations stressed the necessity of eliminating terrorism, protecting citizens from the scourge of terrorism, amending the terrorism law to align it with international human rights standards, reviewing the definition of terrorism, and promoting respect for human rights in the context of counterterrorism operations.

Thirteenth: Fair trials

Egypt received 15 recommendations out of 372, with regard to ensuring a fair trial, calling for the necessity of ensuring the right to a fair trial and limiting the jurisdiction of military courts to military cases, and continuing efforts to combat impunity for human rights violations. Recommendations also urged Egypt to ensure its full compliance with Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, amend the Code of Criminal Procedure in order to fulfil its constitutional obligations, and restrict excessive use of pre-trial detention measures within the narrow limits set out in Article 54 of the Constitution. Recommendations called for addressing impunity by seriously investigating allegations of extrajudicial killings, torture and enforced disappearances by security forces, announcing the results of these inquires, and prosecuting those responsible.

Fourteenth: Combating Corruption

Egypt received 10 recommendations out of 372, in relation to fighting corruption. They demanded that Egypt continue efforts to combat corruption, and ensure accountability in addition to continuing to promote the right to development, including redoubling national efforts to combat corruption.

Fifteenth: The Crime of Human Trafficking

Egypt received 9 recommendations out of 372, in relation to the crime of human trafficking, calling for adequate training and resources to be provided for the full implementation of the national strategy to combat human trafficking, guidelines for evidence collection, investigation and prosecution of human trafficking crimes, and protection of victims while continuing to strengthen efforts to combat human trafficking and smuggling of migrants effectively with regular monitoring, effective prosecution and assistance to victims.

Sixteenth: Economic and Social Rights

Egypt received 60 recommendations out of 372, in relation to economic and social rights, most of which stressed the importance of continuing to strengthen international efforts in realizing the right to development, reducing unemployment rates, and developing the work environment. The recommendations also urged Egypt to continue efforts to ensure equal rights for women in the workplace, take measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the workplace, prohibit child labor, continue to develop interventions to support young people’s access to decent work opportunities, and promote social inclusion of youth in urban and rural areas to reduce From youth unemployment, redoubling efforts to better integrate persons with disabilities into the labor market, and promoting vocational training so that young graduates can enter the job market quickly. The recommendations also demanded that Egypt consider implementing the necessary measures and legal reforms to further the protection of domestic workers and prohibiting their exploitation, and redoubling efforts to implement the comprehensive national strategy to combat short and long-term unemployment, and continue its efforts to strengthen social protection and inclusion programs for poor families, the elderly, orphans, and persons with disabilities. The recommendations urged Egypt to do more to promote economic, social and cultural rights by strengthening social protection measures and to continue efforts to provide the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health for its citizens, and expand the scope of the new national health program, continue to take concrete measures to eliminate discrimination and stigmatization against persons affected by leprosy and their family members.

Seventeenth: The rights to education and health

Egypt received 66 recommendations out of 372, regarding the rights of women, children and people with disabilities, and the largest share of these recommendations was for women, as the number of recommendations related to women reached 52 recommendations, between demanding some amendments or encouraging the government’s continuation of some of the efforts that have already been undertaken. At the forefront of these recommendations was the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women through taking decisive measures to eliminate it, preventing sexual exploitation and trafficking in persons, strengthening measures to eliminate female genital mutilation, combating sexual harassment, and developing legal provisions to combat rape, including marital rape, and other forms of sexual and gender-based violence, in line with international law and international standards, and to take further measures to combat violence against women and children in all its forms as well as raising the legal age of marriage for women to 18 years. The recommendations also encouraged the effective implementation of legislation aimed at eliminating discrimination and violence against women and girls, as well as reviewing personal status legislation and the penal code in order to further amend or remove articles that discriminate against women, and revise the personal Status Law to allow civil marriage and divorce, and to ensure the implementation of the provisions of the new constitution aimed at enhancing the enjoyment of all women of their rights. As for the rights of children and people with disabilities, the recommendations demanded to continue protecting children and improve the quality of children’s living standards by developing health and educational systems to ensure that all children have access to basic services, and to strengthen the role of child protection committees and provide the necessary financial resources to provide protection services for children, including children with disabilities with an emphasis on children in rural areas. The recommendations urged the amending of article 122 of the Child Law, to ensure that juvenile offenders are never prosecuted as in regular adult courts, as well as further strengthening efforts to end child labour, and ensure that perpetrators are brought to justice, and also prohibiting all forms of corporal punishment of children.

Nineteenth: Rights of refugees and migrant workers

Egypt received 8 recommendations out of 372, regarding the rights of refugees and migrant workers, as they called on Egypt to continue policies aimed at protecting the rights of refugees and minorities, and to develop poli in order to protect the rights of migrant workers and coordinate actions between different stakeholders, to increase harmonization of domestic laws with the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and to take measures to protect refugees and migrants from violence, and to continue promoting tolerance between communities. Recommendations encouraged Egypt to renew its commitment to the practice of non-refoulement and to ensure the availability of resources and support for vulnerable migrants, as well as adopting laws and measures to ensure better coordination of policies to address negative factors of migration, and better management of economic migration, and removing legal and practical barriers to obtaining Egyptian citizenship in the event of dissolution of marriage to non-Egyptians.


[1] http://www.ohchr.org/AR/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/AboutCouncil.aspx

[2] http://www.ohchr.org/AR/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/AboutCouncil.aspx

[3] http://www.ohchr.org/AR/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/UPRmain.aspx

[4] The increasing number of recommendations resulted from the number of countries participating in the discussion of the Egyptian file, which amounted to 132, and that the Troika did not blend similar recommendations. The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights (EOHR) combined the repeated recommendations into one recommendation, as a result of which the number of recommendations reached less than 200 recommendations. For example recommendations No. 4, 5 and 6, all of them were on ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, in addition to some recommendations that have already been implemented, such as repealing all provisions for the execution of minors, amending the Children’s Law not to apply capital punishment to children, and repealing Law No. 70 on organizing civil work.

[5] http://ar.eohr.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/2002.pdf

It is worth noting that in July 2019, the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights issued a detailed report on the recommendations received by the Egyptian state in 2014, this report included a set of measures that the EOHR urged the Egyptian government to take, to implement the recommendations it received by the during the universal periodic review mechanism  in November 2014, so we will list some measures that the government must take to implement the recommendations received during the mechanism of the universal periodic review in November 2019>

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