Archive for the 'Reports' Category

When will the crime of torture stop?

March 11th, 2009 by Editor



The phenomenon of torture is considered the most heinous crimes which violates the human dignity and privacy, this crime violates the right to life which is one of the most absolute sacred rights.


It can be said that the international covenants concerned with human rights has given a special importance for this phenomenon and aimed at developing such a convention to combat it namely: the Convention against Torture of 1984. However, we find that this phenomenon spreads rapidly in the Egyptian structure especially in the existence of death cases resulted from torture practices inside prisons and police stations.


Going a head from The Egyptian Organization for human rights(EOHR)interest to deal with this phenomenon ,  it issues a report concerning this crime from time to another. EOHR issued this report” When will the crime of torture stop?” which monitored 56 typical cases of torturing citizens inside police stations during the period from June 2008 till Feb 2009 including 13 death cases due to torture and ill treatment, besides 25 cases of persecution and arbitrary detention.


The following table shows the cases of torture and death cases monitored by EOHR during the period from 1993 to December 2008. 460 torture cases and 167 death cases are monitored and  EOHR suspected that the reason for the death is due to  torture and ill treatment .





Death cases

Torture cases






















































The report shows –depending on the cases of torture monitored by EOHR- that most of torture cases and ill treatment inside police stations were occurred  after the arrest and before transferring to the competent prosecution this in order to force them to confess  with specific crimes . Torture is not only practiced against detentions , but it  is against families of victims to force them to tell news and information on their relatives or their places or to oblige wanted suspects to deliver themselves as well . Also the report monitored some torture cases without any clear reason.


The spread of this  phenomenon is due to a set of aspects as follows:


First: The legislation failure.


The penal code No. 58 1937  includes several legal articles which provides a favorable environment to spread terrorism crime as follows:



– Article 126 of the penal code provided that “Every employee or official who gives order to torture a suspect or did this action by himself to oblige the suspect to confess, he will be sentenced to penal servitude or 3-10 years imprisonment, if the victim died the perpetrator is sentenced to the stated punishment for premeditated murder”.



We find that this article doesn’t provide the adequate criminal protection for human right to mental and physical safety. It faces just only the torture case going on the suspects to force him to confess. If torture is committed by public official –according to the concept of Article 126 – against another person or against the suspect  during investigation , the article is not applied in this case, however the natural criminal rules are applied. Also this article doesn’t conform with the provisions of the international convention against torture ratified by the Egyptian government in 1986 and became part and parcel from its national legislation according to article 151.


 If we read the first provision of article 1 of the convention against torture and what has been mentioned in article 126 of the Egyptian penal code, we find a wide difference between the two provisions. The provision of the penal code gives a narrow definition for torture crime the matter which leads to the impunity. However as for the provision of the convention against torture , it provided that” For the purposes of this Convention, torture means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining information or confession,  or punishing the suspect for an act he or a third person has committed  


According to article 126,  it satisfies with punishing public official who committed torture crime , however it doesn’t punish those who motivate or approve or conspire on torture or to be silent on the crime . So We find Article 126 of the penal code comes to treat just only one case, namely the responsibility of the public official on torture to suspect to force him to confess, so it doesn’t criminalize other small officials such as soldiers and police guides who committed torture. So the moral torture is driving out from the scope of article 126 which supposes that the physical torture only contradicts with the concept of torture stated  in the International Convention against Torture.     


 – Penal Code provides guarantees for perpetrator  to escape from punishment as it stated a comical sanctions not adequate to deter him. Also article 129 provided that” Every public official and every person charged with public service uses cruelty depending on his position as he causing pain or prejudice the honor, he sentences to  not more than 1 year imprisonment and a fine of not more than 200 L.E


– Article 63 of the penal code comes to impose more protection to the public officials as it is stated that “There is no crime if it is committed by public official according to an issued order from his boss or his intention is good and committed an act according to what laws ordered” 


– Article 282 lifted the sanction of physical  torture crime to the level of felonies if the arrest was illegal accompanied with threat with murder, or through physical torture by instruments  . So the punishment should be thicken    in the last case as representatives of the executive authority commit this crime on the base of their position and power. 


– Articles No. 126-282 are not providing any protection for mental or psychological safety of individuals from public officials deeds . It is not considered a torture – according to article 12- such deeds inflicted upon other persons from suspect’s family to force them to confess or threat others.


Also it is not considered a torture crime such  long investigation for suspect or shedding  brilliant light during sleep or the use of sensory influences or hearing suspects such pains sound or noise  repeatedly,  as a result of torture, or the words of insults and slander or to use the blindfold or cuffs all the time or the threat of oppression or murder except that  if the arrest was illegal, however  if the arrest was legal ,it is not considered a torture crime according to article 282.Also the prevention of food or cloth or keep the detainee in a separate cell where his physical and mental health is affected.          


Second: The confiscation of applicant  with civil right in the direct litigation or civil litigation against public officials or providing the legal protection for perpetrators.


The second paragraph of article 232 of  the code of criminal procedures gave the right to every civil plaintiff to bring his suit by charging his foe directly  to attend before the court, however the article exclude suits raised against public officials or one of)police men) with a crime committed during his duty. This is a breach of the principle of equality to set justice among individuals in rights and provide such protection to police men at the expense of freedoms and rights . Also Articles 162,210 of criminal procedures code  banned the applicant with civil right to appeal  to the issued decisions taken by the investigation judge or public prosecution with no right to bring suit against public official or one of police men for a crime committed  during their duty.  


Third: the broad powers of police officers.    


The Egyptian legislator gave the police officers a  wide powers to enable them to do their tasks, however he breached the legal guarantees for the suspects during investigations. In this framework, article 102 of police law No. 109 -1971 which stated that” Police man is allowed to use power to do their duties if it was the only way to do their tasks. This article opens widely  the door to use power without controllers .  Article 23 of criminal procedures code added that” Police officers, corporals, constables and heads of police stops are judicial officers  in their competence district . This article determined such tasks undertaken by police officers and their bosses in searching for crimes and perpetrators and to collect evidences needed for investigations. The law provided police officers several powers including the arrest power and the right to write reports  for them.

These wide competences, in case of not abide by limits determined by the law, will lead to harmful results on the personal freedoms.    


In this regard, EOHR confirms that most of violation cases occurred in police stations return to either because of the misuse of these powers or due to gabs in law itself. Also the arrest is considered one of the most dangerous procedures provided to police officers, however article 34 of criminal procedures law provided police officers – exception from red-handed case- the power to arrest suspected individuals ,the law registered this exception   under the condition of the existence of adequate evidences that this person committed a crime, whatever these crime are misdemeanor or felony which penalty  extend to 3 months. However, EOHR thinks that “adequate evidence” expression is an elastic expression without controllers.


In this regard, the report of When will the crime of torture stop?”  comes in the framework of the permanent EOHR’s campaign to combat torture crime in Egypt and penalize the perpetrators, improve citizens treatment and respect their rights and freedoms inside police stations and other places for detentions .


EOHR aims at  becoming aware of the magnitude of the phenomenon and to urge the government to take a serious steps whether legal or practical to limit the escalation of torture crime in accordance with the constitution and international covenants concerned with human rights and to bring those responsible persons to justice and to take into account the legal guarantees to protect the right of detainees to physical, mental and psychological safety stated in the international covenants on civil and political rights and the convention against torture and other conventions, declarations and international recommendations concerned with human rights.



The report divided into the following:


First section: The organized legislative  framework for torture crime in Egypt.


It deals with most important international covenants, Egyptian constitution and penal code  related to torture crime


Second section: Typical cases


It deals  with some  typical cases for death rate, torture, detention, persecution and ill treatment monitored during the period from June 2008 till February 2009.


Third section: Conclusion and recommendations


First section: The organized legislative  framework for torture crime in Egypt.



The international covenants paid much attention to this crime  as the provisions of   international conventions for human rights such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention against Torture include several articles which give an attention to the crime of torture and the way to control it.


One of these provisions, Article 3 of the Universal declaration of human rights approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 10th of December

1948: which stated ” Everyone has the right to life, freedom, and personal security”. Also Article 5 ” No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel punishment or inhuman or degrading treatment “. Also article 7 of the international covenant on civil and political rights approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 16 December 1966 “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel punishment or inhuman or degrading treatment. As well as article 10 “All individuals deprived from their freedoms shall be treated with humanity and with respect for their dignity “. Article 12 of the convention against torture stated that ” Each State Party shall take legislative or administrative measures  or any effective judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its  judicial jurisdiction”,  and article 12 which provided that” Each state party its competent authority carries out a fair and quick investigation as long as there are logic reasons for believing that one of torture deeds is committed in any region under its jurisdiction”.


Also article 13 ” Each State Party shall ensure that any individual alleged to have been subjected to torture in any territory under its jurisdiction the right to submit a complaint to the competent authorities and that the authorities consider this situation as a matter of urgency and should take the necessary steps to ensure the protection of the complainant and witnesses of all ill- treatment or intimidation as a consequence of his complaint or any evidence given”.


Also article 15 provided that” Torture is no longer an acceptable justification to get a confession as any confessions through  torture is considered wasteful and unreliable”. Article 13 of the Geneva Convention of 1949, also criminalized the violence that affects the person’s life or safety …. especially cruel treatment, torture or abuse of dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment.


As for the Egyptian legislations, we can say that the Egyptian Constitution includes several articles to criminalize this crime such as article 40 of the constitution which provided that” Citizens are equal before the law and equal in rights and duties, there is no distinction on grounds of origin, sex, language or creed. Article 41 of the constitution provided ” Personal freedom is a natural right and guaranteed and inviolable, except for red-handed case , no one may be arrested or searched  or subjected to restrictions by any means or prevented to move except only by order to achieve society maintenance and security issued by the competent judge or the public prosecution according to the provisions and the law only determines the period of provisional detention”.


Also article 42 of the constitution provided that “Every citizen arrested or detained or imposed by any restrictions has to be treated in a manner that keep his dignity, he may not be detained in such places not controlled by laws issued to organize prisons”.



Article 57 of the constitution provided that” Every attack committed against the personal freedoms or citizens’ privacy and other rights and public freedoms guaranteed by the constitution is considered a crime which doesn’t drop neither criminal nor civil litigation with prescription and state guarantees a fair reparation”.


As for domestic laws level, the Egyptian penal code doesn’t set a definition to torture crime, however it listed a set of laws and established a legal framework to protect citizens from torture, such as the Penal Code No. 58 of 1937 , as article 126 of the penal code criminalized the torture of citizens to force them to confess , the article provide that ” Every public official ordered to torture suspect to force him to confess , will be sentenced to penal servitude or from 3 to 10 years  imprisonment , and  if the suspect died he will be sentenced to the sanction stated for premeditated murder.


Also article 127 of the penal code criminalized the arbitrary use of sanction which provided that” Every public official or responsible individual used cruelty depending on his position so that he violates the honor or assault individuals , be sentenced to not more than 1 year imprisonment and a fine of not more than 200 L.E”.    


Article 282 also stated that” Provisional Penal servitude will be a sentence  to whom threat  or torture a person without a legal right .  


Second section: Typical cases

This section deals with some typical cases for death, torture, detention, persecution and ill treatment which were monitored during the period from 1/7/2008 to 30/2/2009 and documented by lawyers of the field unit at EOHR.


 Death cases (13 cases)


The first case: Ali Nasr Al Din Ali Mahfouz – Al Gharbia governorate


Ali  was detained in Al Mahala police station  as he was accused in a case. On 4/6/2008 at 4:00 noon her mother went to the police station to meet her son , during her attempt to meet him she  heard him calling for help . She went to the source of her son’s voice to find him very sick  . Ali told his mother that he was subjected to torture and assaulted  by police officers in the police station  . He asked her to submit a complaint to the prosecution . When she had returned back to the police station at about 8:00 PM  with a lawyer , she informed that his son hanged himself  and died . She charged chief of police station and police officers with the death of her son.   


 The second case: Atef Al sayed Ahmed Ibrahim –Port Said governorate


On 13/12/2008 at about 10:30 AM , the mentioned man was arrested during his existing in his house by police corporal called Fouad and a soldier called Ibrahim , he was led to Port Said police station , he was confined in a room  affiliated to investigation unit of the police station.  On 15/12/2008 at about 7:00 AM Atef’s family surprised by one of individual of police station informing them that their son died after he hanged himself . His corpse was transferred to Port Said hospital where his mother noticed that he wears clothes different from the clothes he arrested with . Also she found an injury  and wound as a wide line down to his chin and a wound in the nose and bruises in different parts in his body the matter which led to arouse doubts that there is a criminal suspicion in the fact of his death.   The family submitted a report to port said prosecution accusing police commissioner and investigation chief of torturing his son till death.


The third case: Mervat Abdul Satar – Menya governorate


On 8/10/2008 Mervat’s family surprised by  a force of Samalout police station  burst into the house led by police officer called Ahmed Anwar , chief investigation , Ahmed Abu Al Ezz , Ahmed Kamal Abdul Aziz , officers and Mohamed Antar – Khalaf Fathy , Gad Mohamed Younis.  The police force searched the house and destroyed its contents as a pretext to arrest brother of her husband called Shaaban Sayed riad. When she had tried to ask about prosecution permission to search the house , police officer called Ahmed Abu Al Ezz bat her  with hands above her head and with legs in her stomach and she was pregnant .  As a result of this offense the mentioned fell over the stairs which led to her death.


Fourth case: Mohamed AL Sayed  Said Al Daqahlia


On 22/10/2008 Mohamed’s family surprised by a force of  Sherbin police station  broke in the house as they began to search the house and destroyed its content . The mentioned force arrested the mentioned force and the family asked the force about prosecution permission to search the house , the officer asked them to be silent . On 23/10/2008 when the family went to the police station , they surprised by the mentioned man hanged from his hands .


On 25/10/2008 Mohamed told  his family that he will be submitted to the night prosecution , so his family waited him from 5:00 pm to 11:30 pm as they surprised with one of police individuals asked them to carry the mentioned man from the police station , the mentioned was very sick and tired and transferred to Sherbin hospital where he died . The family discovered that there are several injuries in his corpse as follows:


 -Severe swelling in the wrists

-Severe   swelling at the bottom of the ribs , approximately 20 cm in the back also in the stomach area.

-Severe swelling in the penis and testis

– Hemorrhage of the eye, nose and mouth.


The fifth and sixth case : Abdel-Wahab Abdel-Razek – Yahya Al maghraby/ Aswan Governorate


The event returned back to 22/11/2008 at about 12:00 pm , as a force from drug office at Aswan led by Mohammed labib , police officer, went to  Al Sail area where citizen Abdul wahab Abdul Razik (40)lives . The mentioned force broke into his house as a pretext to arrest a citizen called Mamdouh, drug dealer, as the force believed that he disappeared in the house of the first mentioned man . Shiek Aref Siam, uncle of the first mentioned  man informed that the force knocked on Abdul Wahab’s door who opened a small window in the door to see the prosecution permission , then the force released fire on the door and burst into the house and destroyed its contents . They assaulted his family (mentioned wife – mother – nieces).the mentioned is tied with chains and transferred to Aswan hospital which put the corpse in the reception as the family objected to put it in the morgue and informed the prosecution which decided to transfer the corpse to forensic medicine. Abdul Wahab’s  family gathered around the hospital to protest against the death of Abdul Wahab.  


As a result of that crowd, the police forces surrounded the area and released tear gas bombs to disperse the crowd which led to the death of yehia Al Maghrabi (59 years)as a result of inhaling the gas used by police forces to disperse about 2000 demonstrators in Aswan.


EOHR knew that the security forces surrounded a number of areas  in  Aswan for the next day using the tear gas bombs to disperse the crowd the matter led to the death of Abdul-Wahab Abdel-Razzak and several injuries received treatment in hospitals in Aswan.

The seventh: the eighth – ninth – tenth: Saad Odeh Soleiman – Rubaa Hamid Abu Singer – Ahmed Salim Gomaa – Marwan Jamil Salem – Arish governorate:


The event of this case returned back to what mentioned by representative of EOHR in the north of Sinai on 10/11/2008 .When a force of police security had inspected the area , they surprised by a car penetrated the security motorcade . The police released fire on the car which exchanged fire with the force the matter which led to the death of  Saad Ouda Soliman . The police force arrested another citizen called Mohammed Soliman Hassan.



EOHR’s procedures



On 24/2/2009 EOHR   submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  to investigate the fact of assault and to work on urging the forensic doctor to prove his injuries.





II: cases of persecution (25 cases)
First case: Ahmed Naji Mahmoud Hafez
Governorate of

30/4/2008 at approximately 1:30 AM , Ahmed’s family surprised by  a force of State Security breaks into the house to arrest Ahmed, student in faculty of Engineer –Ain Shams university. The mentioned is still in custody till the date of submitting the complaint to EOHR.




EOHR’s procedures


On 2/5/2005 2009 EOHR   submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  to release the man.


Second case: Jihan Aboul-Nasr Mohamed
 Cairo Governorate



Jihan has a son called Ahmed Hassan Mohamed who was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment as he was accused in such a case and released on 1/4/2008 , however he didn’t attend the appointment of his monitoring in Al Zaitoun police station.

Gihan since that date suffered from persecution by members of Al Zaitoun police station representing in breaking into her house at different time illegally. Also she was subjected to insult and abuse and the threat to fabricate cases and detaining her for 24 hours in the police station. On
29/7/2008 at about 4:30 pm a force broke into her house including 5 individuals assaulting her and the threat to fabricate cases for her.


She submitted a report to the prosecutor general of Al Zaytoun prosecution No. 1173 on 2/8/2002 and another report to the Minister of Interior No. 1562 on 2/8/2008.  



EOHR’s procedures

 On 3/8/2008 EOHR   submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  to investigate into the event of assault committed against Gihan.


Third case: Mohamed Sayed Abdul Nabi
Giza Governorate

On 11/11/2008 at about 12:00 AM Mohamed was surprised by a force of Mansh’t Al Kanater  police station broke into his  house led by ( Ali Hassan –Tamer-Hamdi), police corporals. The force arrested Mohamed and took him to the police station illegally as he subjected to many violations as follows:


         beating with hands and feet in different places in the body

         subjected to insult and abuse from security and police corporals inside the police station.


Mohamed was confined at the investigation room till he was transferred to Imbaba prosecution as he was surprised that he was accused of trafficking in drugs (57 grams of Bango plant) in case No. 65555 -2008. the mentioned informed the prosecution that he always subjected to constant persecution committed by police corporal called Ali Hassan as there is a dispute between him and Mohamed’s father . A number of cases are fabricated as a result of this dispute including case No. 157-2006 as he accused of possessing ( white weapon ). Also Mohaned is always suffering from continued threat and fabricated cases.


 EOHR’s procedures

 On 13/11/2008 EOHR   submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event of fabricating cases illegally.


 The fourth case: Mahmoud Mohamed Farahat

Giza Governorate

On 19/2/2008 at about 1:00 PM Mahmoud was arrested before his house as a result of a quarrel among a group of individuals , when Mahmoud tried to settle the quarrel, he surprised by a force of Al Omrania police station led by Ahmed Al Nawawi – Mohamed Imbaby, officers took him to the police station where he subjected to insult and abuse.


Mahmoud was subjected to the public prosecution on 1/3/2008 which decided to release him. When he returned back to the police station to receive his belongings and some private papers, he didn’t find his mobile and some private papers.


 EOHR’s procedures: 

On 5/3/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


Fifth case: Goda Mahmoud Abdullah
Ismailia governorate

On 7/7/2007 at approximately 3:30 PM Goda was surprised by a force of Al Tal Al Kabeer arrested his nephew called Mahmoud Ahmed Mahmoud 17 years illegally as Goda submitted a complaint to the prosecution of Al Tal Al Kabir against the officials in the  investigation department of Al Tal Al Kabir police station accusing them of damaging the car of Goda’s brother. As stated in the complant, Goda is being subjected to persecution to be forced to disclaim.



EOHR’s procedures:



On 1/8/2007 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures and  to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


The sixth case: Hala Mohamed Abdul-Hamid
Sohag Governorate

7/3/2006 Hala leased an apartment in her building to an officer called Mohamed Abu Zaid in Sadfa police station. The officer refused to pay her the monthly rent value, so she brought suit against him No. 365 -2008 to abolish the contract related to the apartment the matter which let this officer to persecute Hala to force her to disclaim. 


The officer had already assaulted and threaten her, so she submitted a report to the prosecutor general of Sohag prosecution under No. 364-2008 accusing the officer of assault and threat.


EOHR’s procedures:

 On 7/9/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



The seventh case: Al Sayed Saber Abdul Wahab
Dakahliya governorate 


On 20/8/2008 the family of Saber was informed by his colleagues that saber was confined in Mansoura police station illegally, as the family went to the police station to visit him , however their tries were in vain. The family submitted a request on 4/8/2008 to Al Mansoura chief prosecution to investigate into the event.


EOHR’s procedures:

 On 22/8/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



The eighth: Imam Ibrahim Imam
Al Menoufia governorate

 Imam is suffering from persecution by police officers of Koisna police station  as they always persecute him and threat to  fabricate cases in case of not working with them as police guide.


  According to what has been stated in the complaint, Imam had worked as a police guide, during 2004 he refused to go ahead and continue working as a guide, so they fabricated a case for him and was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.



The ninth case: Said Mohamed Hassan Al Nashawy     
Cairo governorate



On 1/9/2008 at about 10.30 PM , a force of Artistic works investigation – Masr Al Kadima police station . This force led by Mazen Abdul Shafy, officer broke into Said’s house illegally, it destroyed the contents of the house and confiscated “Satellite receiver” . Several days later, Said was surprised by his accusation in case No. 18101-2008.



EOHR’s procedures: 

On 3/9/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



The tenth case : Hussein Ashraf Ashour
Dakahliya governorate


 On 24/8/2008 at about 10:00 AM , a force of investigation of judgments execution – Dekernes police station led by Mohamed Safwat, officer, in the frame of searching for Hussein’s uncle called Hussein Ashour Ashour as there is a decision issued against him , the family surprised by the force taking a sucker baby who didn’t exceed a year and a half and detaining him to 9 hourse till he returned back again to his family.




EOHR’s procedures


EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



 The eleventh case: Ahmed Younis Hussein Al-Banan


Dakahliya governorate
On 13/8/2008 at about 9:00 PM Ahmed was surprised by a two persons from Al Manzala police station beating him with hands and feet and with wooden stick to 15 minutes as Ahmed said , then they took him to the police station illegally as he wasn’t released till afternoon 14/8/2008  



EOHR’s procedures:


On 18/8/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


The twelfth case : Ahmed Mohamed Rashid Abu Wafa – Atef Sayed Shaaban


 Cairo governorate:
27/7/2008 at about 3:00 AM a force of state security investigation – Nasr city arrested Ahmed and Atef and other 13 individuals . On 21/8/2008 the 13 individuals were released except Ahmed and Atef.


 EOHR’s procedures:


On 29/7/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



 The thirteenth case : Mohamed Abdul-Hamid Abbas
Cairo Governorate


Mohamed was surprised by a police corporal called Al Sayed Hassan insulting him, then the police corporal sent two other police corporals to take Mohamed to Nabil Salim , officer, who asked police corporals to insult and beat Mohamed as follows :

          He was beaten by hands and feet in different places in his body.

         He was tied with iron chains from his back.


 EOHR’s procedures



On 10/6/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.

 The fourth case: Hassan Abdul-Hafiz Sayed
Cairo governorate

Hassan is physically handicapped since his birth, he worked as a waiter in a café in El Hegaz square. On 23/7/2008 during his work, Hassan was surprised by a force of Al Nozha police station asking him about the owner of the café, the force arrested him after insulting him as he was taken to the police station till he was released in the next day.



EOHR’s procedures



On 25/7/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


The fifteenth case : Nady Mahmoud Khalifa Melegy

Giza Governorate

5/3/2008 at approximately 8:00 PM during Nady taking his car to his house in Al Manshia Road, he was surprised by a person ridding a motorcycle wearing civilian clothes asking him to show his ID. He informed him that he is a police man from Al Badrashine police station, he arrested him and took him to the police station where he was beaten by hands and feet by one of police corporals called Ahmed Al Far with other two individuals in the police station , he was confined in a room in the second floor illegally as he also was prevented to go to the bathroom and the investigation officer asked Nady to bring a firearm to the police station to be released without writing reports against him. On 6/3/2008 at about 11:00 AM he was released.



EOHR’s procedures


On 7/3/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



The sixteenth: Ahmed Naji Mahmoud Hafez

Cairo  governorate  

30/4/2008 at approximately 1:30 Ahmed’s family was surprised by a force of state security investigation breaking into the house as it arrested Ahmed and he is still under detention.


 EOHR’s procedures 

On 5/1/2008 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.

The seventeenth case : Maged Mohammed Abbas
Cairo  governorate

17/6/2008 Maged was surprised that he was arrested by electricity investigation as Maged works as an employee at the electricity distribution  company – Maadi nets.  

He was taken to electricity investigation office where he subjected to insult by Nabil Salim, officer, then he was transferred to Helwan police station as he was confined to 7 hours before transferring him to the public prosecution. When he had transferred to the public prosecution, he released as there is no legal reason to arrest him.


EOHR’s procedures 

EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


The eighteenth case : Mohanad Negm Abboud
Giza Governorate


In 2006 Mohanad and his wife, Iraqi nationality,  came to Egypt to stay in. On 13/5/2008  he was surprised by his summon by state security office in Giza . According to what has been stated in the complaint, he is still absent till now.



EOHR’s procedures

 EOHR  submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


 The nineteenth case : Abdul-Latif Abdel-Maksoud, Ali Ghoneim


On 8/6/2008 Abdul Latif was confined in Al Santa police station till Wednesday 11/6/2008 without any reports written against him , also there is no any judicial decisions issued against him as he described.


EOHR’s procedures

On 10/6/2008 EOHR submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


Twenty case: Mohamed Alaa El Din Mohamed
Cairo governorate

Within 2001 Mohamed was accused of murder case as he was sentenced to 7 years imprisonment. On 23/7/2006 he was released after he spent three quarters of the total period. After his release, he married and gave birth, however, he always suffer from persecution by Karem Mahmoud, police corporal Al Nahda police station as he always insult and search him whenever he was seen.



EOHR’s procedures

 EOHR submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.



Case No.21: Atef Ismail Sayed 

Kaliobia governorate   


On 23/6/2008 Atef’s family was surprised by a force  of Banha police station breaking into the house and destroyed the contents of it, then the force took him to Banha police station . he was detained illegally to the next day , he was released after chief of investigation department forced him to sign two certificates of deposition in trust as he described.


 EOHR’s procedures :  

On 25/6/2008 EOHR submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.


 case No. 22: Rasha Kamal Mostafa Abdul Megid

 Al Kalioubia  governorate


 On 16/10/2008 a force of Shubra police station led by Ahmed Samir, police officer,  broke into Rasha’s house illegally . when Rasha had asked about the reason of the existence of police force or prosecution permission, she was surprised by the officer insulting her . Rasha submitted a number of complaints to the responsible bodies . Also she submitted a report on 20/10/2008 to against the officer under No. 12008-2008 .


On 23/11/2008 Rasha was surprised by the same officer with a group of police corporals arrest Rasha’s brothers called Reda Kamal – Adel Kamal illegally . They were transferred to the public prosecution office in the next day as they were accused of drug trafficking.


EOHR’s procedures



18/10/2008 EOHR submitted reports to both of Attorney General  and Minister of Interior to take all the legal procedures  and to take the necessary measures to investigate into the event.




Case No.23 : Mohamed Ahmed Abdul Naby Alam


Cairo governorate


Mohamed suffers from continuous persecution by police officer called Emad. The persecution is represented in

Breaking into his house continuously by the officers and some individuals of police department including Mohamed shalbi, ahmed Abdul Nabai, police corporals who assaulted all members of the family as they also threaten with fabricating cases for Mohamed and his son as there is a previous hostile between Mohamed’s son and the officer.


Case No. 24: Sohir Ibrahim Khalil Abdul Megid

 Sohir suffers from investigation chief of Tanta police station called  Mohamed Fathy. On 4/5/2008 the officer broke into the house and smashing the door of the house and assaulting Sohair’s sons.


 Case No. 25: Reda Abu Al Yazid- Amal Abu Al Yazid :



Both of Reda and Amal are suffering from a police corporal called Hashim khamis Ramadan – al laban police station as he assaulting them to force them to sell their house manipulating his power.



The above mentioned submitted a complaint to Alexandria security division under No. 417 -9/7/2008   and another complaint on 10/10/2008 for public prosecutor for Alexandria west prosecution under No.3503 -2008 , also he submitted a report to Al Amria police station under No. 74G on 14/11/2007, he submitted a report No. 8 G on 31/5/2008 and another one No. 13667 G on 1/6/2008, and a nother one No. 2 Amria Status on 25/9/2008. he was surprised that he was accused in case No. 10655-2008 Amria as he was sentenced to one month imprisonment.


 Conclusions and recommendations:


EOHR Takes care of – Since its establishment in 1985 until now – the phenomenon of torture as it put it at the forefront of violations which are being monitored, through holding seminars and workshops with experts and specialists in the field of human rights. These seminars  aim at raising the public awareness of the extent of torture  crisis  and come up with recommendations to limit the spread of it and produce an integral document on the legislative failure in the field of combating torture and punishing its perpetrators and the preparation of a bill to  amend the national legislation for dealing with the crime of torture. 


In 2003 EOHR released its campaign for combating torture which showed that  torture is based on a systematic plan the matter which require a legislative attitude to combat it.


EOHR has issued its annual reports since 1989 which include recommendations to the Egyptian authorities in order to take the necessary measures to stop the phenomenon of torturing citizens inside police stations.


EOHR  had submitted three reports to the Committee against Torture of the United Nations in Geneva, and the latest joint report with the International Organization Against Torture (OMCT), which submitted in 2002.

As well as annual reports, EOHR has issued about (19) qualitative report on torture in prisons and police stations, which dealt with monitoring and documentation the legislative framework which organize  the right to life and not be subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, besides the documentation of violation cases as follows:


1. Torturing  Iron and Steel workers detained 26/8/1989
2. A series of arbitrary arrests for opinion prisoners
3. Torture of detainees pending the investigation of  Shiaa organization

4. Torture in Egypt 1/11/1990
5. Ill-treatment and torture in police stations
6. Torture prominent Egyptian poet
7. Torture in the camps of the Central Security Forces
8. Crime without punishment: Torture in
Egypt 25 / 12 / 1993
9. Citizens without the enthusiasm
28/4/1998 Belqass tragedy.
12/9/1998 closed doors.
12. Kosheh village collective punishment of citizens
13. The phenomenon of torture between trespassing  and the crisis  of proof .
14. The third millennium started  and the crime of  torture does not stop in
Egypt, 30/1/2000.      
15. Legal protection for the perpetrators of crimes of torture
16. victims Without rights
17. Torture is a crime that must be stopped
18. undeterred crime 2004
19. Torture is a crime against humanity … Stop torture .26/6/2008


  EOHR through its report No. 20 under the title of(When will the crime of torture stop?) submitted a set of important recommendations to the Egyptian authorities to take the necessary measures to ensure the cessation of torture and ill-treatment of citizens in police stations as follows:



1- The necessary to take the bill which had already been proposed by EOHR in 2003 to amend some articles related to torture in the penal code and criminal procedures code which focused on the following aspects:



-Torture crime in the Egyptian law and its amendments according to the international covenants in order to include the definition of torture crime according to what stated in the convention against torture which was ratified by Egypt in 1986 to combat the phenomenon of impunity.


         Thickening the punishment against perpetrators of torture crimes.


         – Giving the effect to the right of victims to file a criminal lawsuit against perpetrators of torture crimes. The bill include exclusively the amendment of articles 126, 129, 280 of the penal code and articles 63, 232 of the criminal procedures code. 



2- The Egyptian government has to ratify the two declarations referred in articles 21-22 of the Convention against Torture, according to these declarations the committee against torture in united nations can make a decision on the submitted complaints from such individuals concerning Egypt‘s commitment stipulated in the convention .


 3- Issuing a new legislation that confirm WHAT SO CALLED “conclusion civiles (the right of civil applicant) ” to litigate directly before criminal court in the crimes of assaulting personal freedom or privacy of citizens.



4- The immediate investigation by public prosecution in the submitted reports from individuals and institutions concerning such assaults which detainees face inside prisons , besides the continued search by public prosecution on police stations and places of detention and control instruments used in torture.


 5 – Increase the number of training and educational courses for police officers, especially officers working in the Criminal Investigation on how to deal with detainees in police stations to ensure respect fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and international covenants on human rights.

 6 – Setting controllers and  specific rules to monitor the performance of police officers and private detectives in investigation departments.



7 – The recognition of organizations working in the field of human rights and cooperate with them and investigating all reports submitted by them .

8 – to take immediate criminal measures  against those who accused of crimes of torture and illegal detention and brought them to trial immediately.

9 – Public prosecution has to perform a continued search for police stations and places of detention to identify the legal status of detainees.









Category: Reports | Comments Off on When will the crime of torture stop?

“Marginalized in shanty towns … Dead or a live : Al Dowiqa opens fire again”

September 17th, 2008 by Editor


   On Saturday 6/9/2008 approximately  at 9:30 AM  , residents of Ezbet Bakhet , Al Dowiqa , Mansha’t Nasser in Cairo – which is considered one of shanty towns which includes a large population groups  localized up and down of the huge mountain plateau of Al Mokatam mountain – waked up on a loud voice of rocky masses collapse to crush many houses including hundreds of citizens  who failed to escape .



The civil defense and emergency couldn’t do their best due to the fact that this region includes an adjacent buildings separated by a narrow ways near a highway road , besides the ruggedness of the area near Al Mokatam mountain which prevents the big equipments to lift rocks or crumble it easily in some sites of the area .Also the crowd led to the postponement of saving victims under the rubble .  The government asked for the help of equipments , cranes and diggers belong  to the armed forces and Arab Contractors company  to lift rubble and rocky  masses .However , these equipments have not been used except only after several days because these equipments  need to erase about 13 houses and an old rail way line . In addition , a security cordon includes the military police troops surrounded the are and prevented journalists and media personnel to enter the area .         


 The crisis is not confined to Al Dowiqa crisis  as far as it goes far beyond it to  the crisis  of the shanty towns in general . The report deals with shanty towns case which has emerged as a reaction due to several  aspects including  economic, political, demographic and natural conditions  . This phenomenon  led to a vast consequences  and in some cases reached the  disastrous results such as the prevalence of terrorism , streets  children and violence .  


   The number of shanty towns  became  1221 areas according to the census of  2006 distributed in 24 governorates inhabited by 15.7 millions persons  and this rate represents 24 % of the total population of the republic .  The rate of shanty towns reach 77% of the constructional growth in some cities  as in Bani Mazar  – Al Menia  governorate and in some cases shanty towns reached about 87 % of the constructional extents like   in Giza governorate .  



  As for Assuit governorate , it stands at  the first position of the shanty towns followed by Cairo governorate which is supposed to be the cleaned city as it includes 81 shanty areas surrounded Cairo such as Arab Ghonim , Al Hakr , Arab Rashed , Kafr alow  , Al Tebeen ,Al Basateen ,Dar Al Salam known as ” people republic of china ” and Kalat Al Kabsh in the middle of Cairo as its population is about 40 000 persons surrounded by Zein Al Abdin cemetery ,Azbet Khairallah , Kafr Kandil in Giza , Ard Aziza Ezat , Azbet Al Korood in Masr Al Kadima , Azbet Abu Hashish ,Hakr Al Sharabia .As for Alexandria , it includes 54 shanty towns inhabited by about 35 % of the total population of Alexandria .


In this regard , EOHR issued a report entitled ” Marginalized in shanty towns   ….. Dead or a live : Al Dowiqa opens fire again ” . The report deals with the crisis of Al Dowiqa and shanty towns in general and the mechanisms that should be taken to solve this problem .

The report is divided as follows:
Section I: Legislative and legal framework of the right to housing
Section II: Shanty towns … The causes and results
Section III: Al Dowiqa  … live witnesses


Conclusion and recommendations   



Section I: Legislative and legal framework of the right to housing 


No one can deny that the  event of Al Dowiqa is considered a clear violation against the right to adequate housing which represents the simplest basic human rights .



The right to housing is one of the  basic human rights   and in the same time one of the fundamental bases  for human life and the main tool for realizing other human civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights .


In addition , the right to housing exceeds the normal building to include the relation between human and the society which humane lives in .This right has a different dimensions and relations which are difficult to be defined such as employment, access to services ,standards of health , personal security  , personal identity ,self- respect, privacy and family life .The suitable house builds the relations and links in an atmosphere of privacy, leading to respect the social relations among all individuals.  


The international covenants paid more attention to this right , especially  the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which stipulated in its article 25 that ” Everyone has the right to access  a standard of adequate living for  himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and Necessary social services and the right to personal security  in case of disasters  such as unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other circumstances that deprive him from main livelihood .Also the International Covenant on Economic , Social and Cultural Rights stipulated in its article 11 that ” Everyone has the right to adequate standard of living for himself and his family to provide their needs of food, clothing and shelter “.Also the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements in 1976 which is considered the  most detailed document related to the legal nature of this right stipulated in the second paragraph part three that ” Housing and the  appropriate services are the  fundamental human rights which  the government must provide for all people” and chapter 2 stipulated that ” Ideologies must not be used to deprive people from their houses or lands or to establish privileges and exploitation. The Istanbul Declaration -1996 confirmed the same meaning as it stipulated that ” Adequate shelter means more than one roof over the head of human, also it means  the appropriate privacy, adequate space, adequate security, legal protection of the population, rigidity and durability Structural, adequate lighting, heating, ventilation and appropriate infrastructure.   


 The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a report No. 4 related to the right to the suitable house as it identified the key elements which form the basic guarantees provided by the international law to enjoy the right to adequate housing  . These keys elements are :  


-The legal guarantee for the continuation of house occupancy .

– Providing services and materials , utilities and basic frameworks .

– The ability to bear the cost of living ( affordability) .

– Habitability

  Access to  the adequate housing according to the cultural background .


The Committee focused –according to the  general comment No. (7)- on the legal protection related to the forced eviction and other cases  which conflict with the  commitments  emerged according to the international Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.


Also there are many other conventions that have paid attention including  the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women which Article 14, paragraph H confirmed that ” The right to enjoy with a suitable living conditions especially what related to  housing and drain utilities , electricity and water supply ,transport and communications and the convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in Article 41, paragraph 2, the Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 27, paragraph 3  and article 10 of  the Declaration of Social Progress and Development, and Article 8 (1) of the Declaration on the Right to Development And recommendation 115 of the International Labor Organization on housing for workers in 1961, the Convention on the Rights of Refugees in 1951.            

 This right didn’t take the correct position in the regional conventions for human rights , also there was no interest in the constitutions of Arab States as there are  17 Arab countries that didn’t mention this right in their constitutions, although there are more than fifty  national constitutions in the world  stated This right .Section II: Shanty towns  … The causes and results



The suitable house supported by basic services is considered a base of preserving the authentic character for the family and the maintenance for values and traditions which represent the basis for economic and social development .  The second section of the report  entitled ” Shanty towns ….. Causes and results” deals with  the exacerbation of the crisis in the last period in Egypt which was the problem that  the report of United Nations fund for Population bewared .      


 The report clarified that the inhabitants of Cairo swelled dramatically in the past three decades as the number duplicated from 6.4 millions in 1975 to 11.1 millions in 2005 , adding that the rate reached about 1221 shanty towns  including from 12 to 15 millions persons who live in unhealthy environment   where health hazards arise from poor drainage system and the lack of pure water  and the poor ventilation in work and living areas  besides , air pollution  and industrial pollution and inadequate food.  These shanty towns  are established by  tin  or zinc or wood  or cartoon  or distracted huts  with narrow alleys where  cars can’t move inside . These  shanty towns are established without a license in the territories owned by the government or others and usually these shanty towns are established outside the scope of governmental  services and utilities .


Shanty towns is considered a challenge to the social system in Egypt and a main snag for social and cultural development and a tool to bring out the crime and terrorism , also it contains some phenomenon  such as child labor, the spread of drugs, the lack of health and cultural  awareness and the lack of social organization . Also it is considered an incubation for all social diseases such as poverty , crimes ,illiteracy , unemployment and the inability to integrate into the city life and the lack of social cohesion or co-operation among these populations who are described as ” Marginalized urban ” .


Shanty towns populations are characterized by a group of negative features such as the abandonment of mates  for families , violence , family centralizing around the mother , they have a sense of “fatalism” ,the lack of  “self-esteem and frustration , fear , suspect and indifference from the economic ,social and political side as they are from low-wage employees used things and live in inadequate housing and crowded with the lack of development services.     


The reasons for the spread of this phenomenon are described as follows :


1- The main causes that led to the spread of this phenomenon  in the Egyptian region  ,  is the increase  number of population or as it were ” Over -Population “. The increase  number of population with the low resources leads to the decrease of  job opportunities and living level  ,so people resort  to these places to live in .



2- The migration from  the countryside to the town and the increase   of poverty rate inside the society  lead to the same problem . The Egyptian society has witnessed  a huge migration from country side to the town and the regional capitals to search for work .As far as  these masses were  a result to capitalize the country   , so far they  were considered a provisional army for work  to cover the needs for cheap labor in the emerged economic sectors .  


3- The increase rate of poverty inside the society :


The spread of poverty is a reflection for the lift of State hand over utilities and services and releasing the hand of private sector to control the market . Egypt comes within countries with  medium human development and its rank is 120 among 177 countries  covered by the Human Development guide   and  was preceded by  such countries like Israel whose rank is  22 and Bahrain in level 40 , Kuwait 44, Qatar 47 and the Emirates 49, while  Cuba ranked level No. 52 .



4- Unemployment :


The rates of unemployment are  raised unprecedented   as the unemployment is one of  the main cause of this phenomenon as it reached about 9.1 % of the total of labor force in Egypt ( 17.8 millions idle persons ) according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics . The causes of the problem of unemployment for the most part of it return back to a structural reasons due to the nature of the Egyptian economic growth -as a developing economy- which suffers from an interior or exterior  structural imbalance  represented in a defect in the balance of payments and imbalance in the state budget , beside the existed gab between savings and investment and thus the production and consumption . The report of human development for Egypt in 2005 issued in Jan 2006 indicated that the chronic unemployment rate is one of the most serious problems facing the Egyptian economy   as the official figure became 11% in 2003 . 


 5- The negligence of governmental bodies for members of society as for providing a safe place for living .


6- The inability of government to set housing  policies         


This phenomenon led to a group of results as follows :


The prevalence of violence :


shanty towns is considered the main fuel for generating violence inside the society .It creates the key elements for the complete readiness of violence. There is another key element for violence represented in retaliatory nature , the social violence reflects a sense of injustice and oppression .It was a sense of marginalized towards the city which give him the life  and neglect him in the same time , so he is controlled by the desire for revenge the matter which makes many thuggery practices   similar to the collective punishment regardless of its causes and results . Shanty towns is considered the incubated environment for political violence as the shanty towns with the economic and social circumstances  helps to spread the violent political behavior  in the presence of economic and political deprivation and negativism and the absence of security for the state the matter which led to the existence of the elementary conditions of ideologies of violence . The social origins of “Jihad organization members”  showed the responsibility of these origins as an incubated environment for political violence  .During the first half of nineties , there were 14 % of these groups which affiliate to Al Sahel district  , 9.1 % for Al Sharabia district  , 9.1 % for Al Waili , 7.3 % for Al Mataria , 31 % Imbaba , 24.2 % Bolaque , however the family roots of most of them return to Al Aiat , Nahia ,Saft Al Laban , Kirdasa , Ezbet Shokr , Ezbet dolar , Al Khanka , Abu Zabel , Kafr shokr , . These villages are mainly suffer from economic changes  and problems of transition to urban style . The situation repeated itself in the second half of the nineties  as the religious violence processes concentrated in upper Egypt villages specially in Malawi , Dirout ,Samalout and Abu Korkas .


 In this regard , the relation between the shanty towns  and violence on the social and political levels is clear  . This relation is expected to aggravate in the light of the following :


First ,  The rapid withdrawal for the state from the economic and social fields , in the frame work of  the structural transformations of the Egyptian state – the program of economic reform and structural adjustment – and the consequent denial of the economic base of the State – the privatization of public enterprise sector –the reduction of social expenditure – the commodity support, public expenditure on education, health and others – the crisis will aggravate due to the decline of employment opportunity and increasing burdens  of living the matter which leads to the crash between the margin and center,  city and shanty towns .  


Second: changes in social structure of the shanty towns , unlike the historic beginnings of shanty towns  , these areas are no longer the  camps which collect immigrants from rural areas ( idles , poor people , young professionals ) ,in the framework of capitalizing the production relation in the Egyptian countryside .Starting from the mid of seventies and as a result of a growing urban  and real estate speculations  , these areas began to witness a new pattern of displacement . A growing proportions of urban populations settled in the shanty towns  the matter which creates a heterogeneous social and intellectual mix that share in incorporating the conflict between the values of rural area and the city , besides the role of establishing the basic conditions for religious violence .


Third :The state trend to control the urban growth  , this includes the re-planning of urban centers ,especially the capital and the big cities which leads to remove and resettle a huge number of shanty towns residents the matter which leads to further clashes between the two sides  .     



Second: The spread of children employment :



The international society interested in combating the phenomenon of children employment as it is considered one of the most greatest phenomenon in communities history , it attacks the base of the society , besides the moral objections concerning the  exploitation of  children in the labor market . The international Convention on the rights of the child issued by the united nations in 1989 paid more attention to the protection of children from violation through letting them in the labor market . Article 22 of the convention stipulated that “The involved countries admit the rights of children to protect them from the economic exploitation or from any action that supposed to be danger or represent a snag or interfere with the children education or their mental , physical , spiritual growth .




 The phenomenon became  clear in Egypt as the number of homeless children is about 2 millions ,including  90 000 in Cairo , the statistics indicated to the magnitude of misdemeanors related to streets children , as most misdemeanors represented by  theft by 56 % , expose to homeless with 16.5 % , beggary  13.9 % , violence with 5.2 % , delinquency with 2.9 % .


Third: The environment field   

 The environmental degradation is represented in a solid waste and the random removal of garbage , besides the existence of accumulated wastes near the residential area , open burning or self-ignition of accumulations , the spread of population groups around dumps to take advantage of garbage through isolating and unsecured exploration by children .


Fourth : The  drainage system          

Most shanty towns lacks the integrated service for the drainage system , as the removal of drainage is through the usage of exposed ground tanks or by deep drain in ground water tanks which leads to the creation of moors in the shanty towns , besides other negative environmental effects on the drinkable water .



Fifth: the  drinkable  water

most of shanty towns lacks the service of drinkable water as the inhabitants get their needs through pulling ground water by unhealthy pumps which leads to the appearance of diarrhea cases or any other health problems .



sixth :The industrial activities :


There are industrial activities spread in some cities especially the shanty towns such as foundries – brick factories – crafts workshops – poultry and animal farms . The random removal of the liquid and rigid industrial wastes in the surrounding grounds and water courses  leads  to a bad effect on the quality of soil and water , besides the high rate of noise .    



Section III: Al Dowiqa …… live witnesses  


EOHR sent a two fact- finding missions to that area , the first one was sent the day after the event as it faced many snags to get in the location of the event due to the siege laid by the security forces around the whole area . The fact finding mission noticed that there is no equipments to lift the collapsed rocks and debris and residents used a primitive equipments to get out victims . So EOHR sent another fact –finding mission in the fifth day , it monitored the following violations as follows :



1- There were a few number of first – aid men assisted by the people of the area using rudimentary equipments such as drove and hummer .

2- The existence of two dead manual diggers .

3- The absence of the trained dogs that detect the victims .

4- The non – participation of armed forces in the exploration of victims .

5- The existence of two bulldozers belong to the Arab Contractors Company as they eliminate the surrounding buildings to widening the area .

6- The emission of bad smell from the corpses as a result of its putridity .


7- Two members of the ministry of Health sprinkled a purified material in the area .


8- The existence of a large security forces in the area to prevent residents and journalists from entering the are except only journalists from the national newspapers .      


The fact finding mission came to the following results :



1- The absence of the monitored role .Although there were a similar collapses in the same area in the past few years , the monitored state agencies didn’t move to help especially that the geographical nature of that area is  rocky , also buildings are randomly located on the side of the mountain surfaces , besides the existing houses down to the mountain which suffer from the random drainage system , the matter which required to evacuate all residents from the area . The continuation of these buildings as they are led to the leak of the drainage system to the loam soil and so the pressure on the limestone rocks .    



The National Institute for Astrophysics and Geophysics Research has prepared a report in collaboration with the Geological survey concerning the study of the nature of Al Mokatam area . This study recommended the necessary of houses evacuation from the side surfaces or down of the mountain all as the same  .These results were submitted to officials in Cairo governorate in 1994 , however the efforts of the governorate are longed in vain , because residents were forced to leave the houses in the morning but they returned back in the night .



2- The lack of attention to the victims under the rocky blocks , besides the strong slowness to get out corpses  .


3- The lack of awareness of civil defense forces with their tasks , also they didn’t receive an adequate training to deal with the crisis .


4- The lack of the  constructional planning that allow   to evacuate the shanty towns in the places where life of residents faces risks and to compensate victims with alternative houses .

5- The failure of the competent agencies to deal with crises .



The live witnesses



Yassin Taha -41 years old – sheep trader .


“We stood with the rescue team till 3 AM , and there were several individuals from residents whose houses are under rocks . These individuals were receiving calls from their relatives who are under wreckage via mobile phones . The victims tried to call for the help to be heard” .



2- Mostafa Tawfik 23 years old :


“The rescue teams are still using the manual equipments  to get out victims . Frankly , residents began to fight the rescue team who tried to prevent them to help “



3- Mohamed Rashid 29 years old – worker


” I was sleeping in my house , then I surprised by a loud sound and a shake like earthquake . I found all people in the street and said that the mountain is falling down . I went there to find that a large piece of the mountain fell on the houses and shanties” .



4- Zeinab Mostafa  


“At 9 :00 AM,  I found my house shaking and we heard a sound of collapse and began to escape from houses despite my house is far from the stricken area” .  


5- Mohamed Sobhy -24 years old


“4 months ago a collapse was occurred in the same area without losses and nothing done by the governorate officials  or the district council . Also in 2005 there was another collapse which led to the death of a family altogether besides the individual accidents .



6- Wael Abdul Magid  24 years old  


 ” The main reason for the collapse is the existence of drainage tubes above the mountain whose nature is consisting of lime layers . These layers are being crumbled by the drain water accordingly “.


7- Mohamed Magdy – 21 years one of residents who participated in the rescue process


” I was in the location of the event since 11 Am at the beginning of the collapse . I took out many numbers of corpses under the rocks , on 9/9/2008 one corpse called ” Abu Khaled was extracted while on 10/9/2008 4 corpses were extracted . The rescue team is using a manual tools to extract the corpses , also the soldiers of civil defense  are standing hand tied and their work is very slow  and we are using a hummer and chisel to get out corpses” .      


8- Mohamed Salah 24- years


” Since  the first day of the collapse , we didn’t see one trained dog that helps to recognize corpses . We asked the rescue team to take the manual digger machine but they refused “. 


9- Hasan Khair – 28 years  , one of lost victims families under wreckage .


“I have a family  relation with Al Gargish family who is under rocks till now due to the slowness process of extracting corpses .



10- Mohamed Anter – worker


“At 9:00 AM  we had heard the sound of collapse and a strong shake in the mountain  . Immediately we had informed the emergency , the first emergency car came at 10:00 Am and the first rescue team was the armed forces from the neighbor battalion and in the afternoon emergency cars , civil defense troops came to the location of the crisis “.




Conclusion and recommendations


   At the end of the report , EOHR confirms the magnitude of the humanitarian catastrophe  which many aspects helped to increase it even if  it is practical or legislative  .  However , it was possible to extenuate the impacts of the crises if the government has a limited and clear mechanism to confront  the crisis regardless of its nature .  It is clear for all that there is a severe  failure committed by the competent bodies   when dealing with the crisis  . Furthermore, EOHR recommends the following :



First : The need for taking a quick steps to manage the crisis of Al Dowiqa 


The mechanisms of solving this crisis lack to the required quickness  to save lives under the ruins , and the way to deal with the crisis  ,   besides the lack of a watchful  leadership to manage the crisis .



So EOHR recommends the following :   

         Forming a high committee to search  the reasons  of the crisis  and its impacts  and ways to avoid  it through addressing the competent ministries to establish a private unit to mange crises .

         Forming a qualified team to survey  areas which  represent danger for residents  and to vacate these areas and to give houses for residents in a safe places .

         Issuing a law to establish an independent council  to manage  crises  , this council includes a group of consultants in all majors related to the humanitarian or natural catastrophes  and to specify an independent budget for it . This council may not submit to any ministry  .


Second : As for shanty towns :


The problem is not in Al Dowiqa in particular , but  in all shanty towns  as the same .  We have about 1221 shanty towns on the republic level . There is a need to deal with shanty towns   in a serious way to avoid its reiteration  as Al Dowiqa is not the first case . So EOHR recommends the following :


         Setting an alternative and effective solutions in order to get rid of shanty  towns which considered a violation against the  right to generous  live which includes ( food , clothes , house , education , treatment , and other main needs ) .

         Providing and promoting the housing level and make it available for all citizens  especially for low income categories with a reasonable prices  with a new strategy to challenge the housing crisis in Egypt .

         Taking a quick steps  to develop an integrated urban strategy  which  puts all state’s efforts in establishing new cities , desert villages and shanty towns development in the framework of  public plan .

         Confirming the nationality of  population problem  , and the necessary of  considering it one of the main problems and its responsibility is  not  confined to a specific ministry  or sector , however the responsibility  falls  upon all ministries and agencies , governmental and non governmental organizations  and institutions concerned with the private sector .

         Establishing  a committee that works on evaluating the role of new urban communities and cities in solving the problem of population to recognize their failure to achieve their goals  , also to recognize   the methods of encouraging inhabitants to the new cities in order to set an effective  strategy  which leads to limit the high population percentage in the old valley .

         Confirming the necessary of spending for population problem as a main part of Stat’s investments  which society shall provide .

         The need  for permanent modernization for population policy  and strategies .

         Revising  laws and legislations which conflict with targets and philosophy of population policies .

          The need for activating laws and legislations that limit building on the agricultural lands .

         Completing the constructional designs preparations to avoid the establishment of new shanty towns and asking for the help of faculty of engineering  and constructional  planning faculty and consultative  offices  due to the lack of local agencies that responsible for these designs .

         The need for activating the real state finance law and implementing what stipulated in article 35 related to the establishment of the support fund for real state finance in the field of selling houses for low income people and to provide the necessary funds for supporting social housing .

         Setting a strategy for low income housing  in the light of market economy   based on encouraging   emigration to the new places with the need to strengthen services in these areas .

         The state  has to guarantee   a high percentage of  funding for  providing the appropriate housing for citizens who have no  adequate or appropriate shelter   .

         The state has to take the necessary measures in order to develop a plan for community development on the economic and local level and structural change to ensure the access of citizens to adequate housing .




free viagra
buy viagra online
generic viagra
how does viagra work
cheap viagra
buy viagra
buy viagra online inurl
viagra 6 free samples
viagra online
viagra for women
viagra side effects
female viagra
natural viagra
online viagra
cheapest viagra prices
herbal viagra
alternative to viagra
buy generic viagra
purchase viagra online
free viagra without prescription
viagra attorneys
free viagra samples before buying
buy generic viagra cheap
viagra uk
generic viagra online
try viagra for free
generic viagra from india
fda approves viagra
free viagra sample
what is better viagra or levitra
discount generic viagra online
viagra cialis levitra
viagra dosage
viagra cheap
viagra on line
best price for viagra
free sample pack of viagra
viagra generic
viagra without prescription
discount viagra
gay viagra
mail order viagra
viagra inurl
generic viagra online paypal
generic viagra overnight
generic viagra online pharmacy
generic viagra uk
buy cheap viagra online uk
suppliers of viagra
how long does viagra last
viagra sex
generic viagra soft tabs
generic viagra 100mg
buy viagra onli
generic viagra online without prescription
viagra energy drink
cheapest uk supplier viagra
viagra cialis
generic viagra safe
viagra professional
viagra sales
viagra free trial pack
viagra lawyers
over the counter viagra
best price for generic viagra
viagra jokes
buying viagra
viagra samples
viagra sample
generic cialis
cheapest cialis
buy cialis online
buying generic cialis
cialis for order
what are the side effects of cialis
buy generic cialis
what is the generic name for cialis
cheap cialis
cialis online
buy cialis
cialis side effects
how long does cialis last
cialis forum
cialis lawyer ohio
cialis attorneys
cialis attorney columbus
cialis injury lawyer ohio
cialis injury attorney ohio
cialis injury lawyer columbus
prices cialis
cialis lawyers
viagra cialis levitra
cialis lawyer columbus
online generic cialis
daily cialis
cialis injury attorney columbus
cialis attorney ohio
cialis cost
cialis professional
cialis super active
how does cialis work
what does cialis look like
cialis drug
viagra cialis
cialis to buy new zealand
cialis without prescription
free cialis
cialis soft tabs
discount cialis
cialis generic
generic cialis from india
cheap cialis sale online
cialis daily
cialis reviews
cialis generico
how can i take cialis
cheap cialis si
cialis vs viagra
generic levitra
levitra attorneys
what is better viagra or levitra
viagra cialis levitra
levitra side effects
buy levitra
levitra online
levitra dangers
how does levitra work
levitra lawyers
what is the difference between levitra and viagra
levitra versus viagra
which works better viagra or levitra
buy levitra and overnight shipping
levitra vs viagra
canidan pharmacies levitra
how long does levitra last
viagra cialis levitra
levitra acheter
comprare levitra
levitra ohne rezept
levitra 20mg
levitra senza ricetta
cheapest generic levitra
levitra compra
cheap levitra
levitra overnight
levitra generika
levitra kaufen

Category: Reports | No Comments »

Citizenship Crisis Erupted Again

June 16th, 2008 by Editor


Abu Fana monastery …. What happened?

Abu Fana monastery witnessed a verbal altercation between a group of clerics at the monastery and a number of residents in the area concerning the right to possess a plot of lands adjacent to the monastery .Differences of point of views evolved among the disputed parties until it reached the  exchange of fire bullets and using batons the matter which led to the death of “Khalil Ibrahim  Mohammed” ,citizen , and the injury of  others and the arrest of  19 persons who were accused of committing a number of charges according to the police record

number 53128-2008.

Read the rest of this entry »

Category: Reports, Statements | No Comments »

“Egypt and The Impact of 27 years of Emergency on Human Rights”

May 28th, 2008 by Editor



During the session of People’s Assembly concerning the discussion of the decision taken by the President to extend the work of Emergency Law No.131/2006 ,the reporter of the general committee of people’s assembly mentioned that government has determined the needed period of time to prepare for the new terrorism law and its amendments. If the government succeeds in issuing a new law before within two years, the stat of emergency will come to an end.

Read the rest of this entry »

Category: Reports | No Comments »

Egypt youth migration ………. fleeing to unknown

December 2nd, 2007 by EOHR


People movement from their country to work in other host country is not considered a new phenomena , it is a natural humankind known and will be known by all people including European union .This phenomena will last for a long period of time as long as there is a disparity of resources and employment opportunity on national or international level .Besides, the need for developed country to receive new migrants for different reasons .Searching for the best is the main influenced aspects on migration streams which determines its direction .

In the view of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership agreement and neighbor policies ,there is a short need for cooperation between countries which export workers and countries that receive them concerning the reasons and motivations of migration not only to get rid of illegal migration but to take a developed procedures for real partnership as well . Read the rest of this entry »

Category: Reports | No Comments »

The Candidacy of Semi- renewal elections for Shura Council …… Restrictions & Violations .

May 27th, 2007 by Editor

The free elections are considered a main guarantee of the democratic system and a confirmation for individual’s right to manage the public affair , and even a key element for practicing the authority .Also the honest elections are  considered a victory for people’s will who choose their representatives freely the matter which  leads us to strengthen the process of democracy . So monitoring elections are considered an indispensable target .


Monitoring elections are a significant process especially in such countries where they undergo the democratic transition as the formal institutions are not trustable and people need further measures to confirm the righteous of elections . This monitoring leads to this target as it plays a great role in creating an atmosphere Of trust and confidence on the integrity of the electoral process and its results. Read the rest of this entry »

Category: Reports | No Comments »